noxz-sites

A collection of a builder and various scripts creating the noxz.tech sites
git clone git://git.noxz.tech/noxz-sites
Log | Files | Refs | README | LICENSE

commit 58a8278fe5d1aa21845c52a077203c8bd0e74527
parent 1628d13441ce2b1bd7fae6be5b6caad9fbc0bff8
Author: Chris Noxz <chris@noxz.tech>
Date:   Sat, 19 Oct 2019 22:01:34 +0200

Add more guides for troff

Diffstat:
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/a_troff_tutorial.pdf | 0
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/a_typesetter-independent_troff.pdf | 0
Mnoxz.tech/guides/groff/index.md | 41++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/making_pictures_with_gnu_pic.pdf | 2760+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/me_reference_manual.pdf | 0
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/nroff_troff_users_manual.pdf | 0
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/using_the_ms_macros_with_troff_and_nroff.pdf | 0
Anoxz.tech/guides/groff/writing_papers_with_nroff_using_me.pdf | 0
8 files changed, 2794 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

diff --git a/noxz.tech/guides/groff/a_troff_tutorial.pdf b/noxz.tech/guides/groff/a_troff_tutorial.pdf Binary files differ. diff --git a/noxz.tech/guides/groff/a_typesetter-independent_troff.pdf b/noxz.tech/guides/groff/a_typesetter-independent_troff.pdf Binary files differ. diff --git a/noxz.tech/guides/groff/index.md b/noxz.tech/guides/groff/index.md @@ -17,14 +17,39 @@ and compiled pdfs from archive.org. Much of the material available was written at Bell Labs. The CSTR documents below refer to 'Computer Science Technical Reports', a Bell Labs internal numbering system used in the past. +### troff ++ [A TROFF Tutorial +](a_troff_tutorial.pdf). +[Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk), Unix Version 7 +manual, 1978. ++ [Nroff/Troff User's Manual +](nroff_troff_users_manual.pdf). +CSTR #54, J. F. Ossanna, Bell Labs, 1976. Revised by [Brian W. Kernighan +](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk), 1992. ++ [A Typesetter-Independent TROFF +](a_typesetter-independent_troff.pdf). +CSTR #97, [Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk), Bell +Labs, 1981, revised March 1982. + +### macro packages ++ [Writing Papers with NROFF using -me +](writing_papers_with_nroff_using_me.pdf). +Eric P. Allman, University of California Berkeley, 1986. ++ [-me Reference Manual +](me_reference_manual.pdf). +Eric P. Allman, University of California Berkeley, 1986. ++ [Using The -ms Macros with Troff and Nroff +](using_the_ms_macros_with_troff_and_nroff.pdf). +Michael E. Lesk, 1978. + ### eqn + [Typesetting Mathematics, User's Guide (Second Edition) ](typesetting_mathematics_users_guide__second_edition.pdf). -[Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk) and Lorinda +[Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk) and Lorinda Cherry, 1978. + [A System for Typesetting Mathematics ](a_system_for_typesetting_mathematics.pdf). -[Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk) and Lorinda L. +[Brian W. Kernighan](https://www.troff.org/whoswho.html#bwk) and Lorinda L. Cherry, CACM, 1975. + [A Guide to Typesetting Mathematics using GNU eqn ](a_guide_to_typesetting_mathematics_using_gnu_eqn.pdf). Ted Harding, 2011. @@ -50,18 +75,21 @@ January 1987. Instrument your programs with graphics. + [DFORMAT -- A Program for Typesetting Data Formats ](dformat_--_a_program_for_typesetting_data_formats__142.pdf). CSTR #142, Jon L. Bentley, Bell Labs, April 1988. ++ [Making Pictures With GNU PIC +](making_pictures_with_gnu_pic.pdf). Eric S. Raymond, 1995. ### refer + [Some Applications of Inverted Indexes on the UNIX System -](some_applications_of_inverted_indexes_on_the_unix_system.pdf). M. E. Lesk. +](some_applications_of_inverted_indexes_on_the_unix_system.pdf). Michael. E. +Lesk. ### tbl -+ Tbl -- [A Program to Format Tables ++ [Tbl -- A Program to Format Tables ](tbl_--_a_program_to_format_tables.pdf). M. E. Lesk, 1977. -+ Tbl -- [A Program to Format Tables ++ [Tbl -- A Program to Format Tables ](tbl_--_a_program_to_format_tables__76.pdf). L. L. Cherry, M. E. Lesk, 1976. -## indexing +### indexing + [Maintaining Cross References in Manuscripts ](maintaining_cross_references_in_manuscripts__127.pdf). CSTR #127, A. V. Aho and R. Sethi, Bell Labs, September 1986. @@ -110,7 +138,6 @@ When writing *eqn* expressions in *groff* it's easier to distinguish what is accomplished this way: .EQ - set default_rule_thickness 13 delim ## .EN diff --git a/noxz.tech/guides/groff/making_pictures_with_gnu_pic.pdf b/noxz.tech/guides/groff/making_pictures_with_gnu_pic.pdf @@ -0,0 +1,2760 @@ +%!PS-Adobe-3.0 +%%Creator: groff version 1.08 +%%DocumentNeededResources: font Times-Bold +%%+ font Times-Italic +%%+ font Times-Roman +%%+ font Courier +%%+ font Symbol +%%DocumentSuppliedResources: procset grops 1.08 0 +%%+ font Symbol-Slanted +%%Pages: 34 +%%PageOrder: Ascend +%%Orientation: Portrait +%%EndComments +%%BeginProlog +%%BeginResource: procset grops 1.08 0 +/setpacking where{ +pop +currentpacking +true setpacking +}if +/grops 120 dict dup begin +/SC 32 def +/A/show load def +/B{0 SC 3 -1 roll widthshow}bind def +/C{0 exch ashow}bind def +/D{0 exch 0 SC 5 2 roll awidthshow}bind def +/E{0 rmoveto show}bind def +/F{0 rmoveto 0 SC 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The)72 236.6 R +(`same' K)2.5 E(eyw)-.25 E(ord)-.1 E F0 .231 +(In place of a dimension speci\214cation, you can use the k)97 252.2 R -.15(ey) +-.1 G -.1(wo).15 G(rd).1 E F1(same)2.731 E F0 5.231(.T)C .231(his gi)388.535 +252.2 R -.15(ve)-.25 G 2.731(st).15 G .231(he object the same)429.157 252.2 R +(size as the pre)72 264.2 Q(vious one of its type.)-.25 E(As an e)5 E +(xample, the program)-.15 E/F2 10/Courier@0 SF(.PS)108 282.2 Q +(box; box wid 1 ht 1; box same; box)108 294.2 Q(.PE)108 306.2 Q F0(gi)72 327.8 +Q -.15(ve)-.25 G 2.5(sy).15 G(ou)100.21 327.8 Q 216 399.8 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL +0 36 RL CL ST 288 417.8 MT 0 -72 RL -72 0 RL 0 72 RL CL ST 360 417.8 MT 0 -72 +RL -72 0 RL 0 72 RL CL ST 414 399.8 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST +(Figure 4-5: The)225.965 440.8 Q F1(same)2.5 E F0 -.1(ke)2.5 G(yw)-.05 E(ord) +-.1 E F1 2.5(5. Generalized)72 488.8 R(Lines and Splines)2.5 E 2.5 +(5.1. 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Because)106.623 374.6 R .391(the e)2.891 F .391 +(xit point for the current direction is already set when you dra)-.15 F 2.891 +(wt)-.15 G .391(he object.)443.788 374.6 R(The)5.391 E .059(second arro)72 +386.6 R 2.559(wi)-.25 G 2.559(nF)130.738 386.6 S .059(igure 8.2 dropped do) +143.857 386.6 R(wnw)-.25 E .059(ards from the circle')-.1 F 2.559(sa)-.55 G .06 +(ttachment point for an object to be joined)338.32 386.6 R(to the right.)72 +398.6 Q .19(The meaning of the command)97 414.2 R/F2 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(mo)2.69 +E .39 -.1(ve t)-.1 H 2.69(ol).1 G .19(ast cir)259.49 414.2 R .19(cle .s)-.18 F +F0 .19(should be ob)2.69 F 2.69(vious. In)-.15 F .19(order to see ho)2.69 F +2.69(wi)-.25 G 2.69(tg)473.19 414.2 S(ener)483.66 414.2 Q(-)-.2 E(alizes, we') +72 426.2 Q(ll need to go into detail on tw)-.1 E 2.5(oi)-.1 G +(mportant topics; locations and object names.)242.34 426.2 Q F2 2.5(9. Naming) +72 450.2 R(Objects)2.5 E F0 .436(The most natural w)97 465.8 R .436 +(ay to name locations in)-.1 F F2(pic)2.936 E F0 .436(is relati)2.936 F .736 +-.15(ve t)-.25 H 2.936(oo).15 G 2.936(bjects. In)346.712 465.8 R .436 +(order to do this, you ha)2.936 F .736 -.15(ve t)-.2 H(o).15 E .187 +(be able you ha)72 477.8 R .487 -.15(ve t)-.2 H 2.686(ob).15 G 2.686(ea)157.844 +477.8 S .186(ble to name objects.)169.41 477.8 R(The)5.186 E F2(pic)2.686 E F0 +.186(language has rich f)2.686 F .186(acilities for this that try to emulate) +-.1 F(the syntax of English.)72 489.8 Q F2 2.5(9.1. Naming)72 513.8 R +(Objects By Order Of Drawing)2.5 E F0 .303 +(The simplest \(and generally the most useful\) w)97 529.4 R .304 +(ay to name an object is with a)-.1 F F2(last)2.804 E F0 2.804(clause. 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Naming) +72 84 R(Objects W)2.5 E(ith Labels)-.18 E F0 -1.1(Yo)97 99.6 S 3.338(uc)1.1 G +.838(an also specify an object by referring to a label.)120.898 99.6 R 3.338 +(Al)5.838 G .838(abel is a w)337.566 99.6 R .838(ord \(which must be)-.1 F .838 +(gin with a)-.15 F .26(capital letter\) follo)72 111.6 R .26(wed by a colon; y\ +ou declare it by placing it immediately before the object dra)-.25 F .26 +(wing com-)-.15 F 2.5(mand. F)72 123.6 R(or e)-.15 E(xample, the program)-.15 E +/F2 10/Courier@0 SF(.PS)108 141.6 Q(A: box "first" "object")108 153.6 Q(move;) +108 165.6 Q(B: ellipse "second" "object")108 177.6 Q(move;)108 189.6 Q +(arrow left at A;)108 201.6 Q(.PE)108 213.6 Q F0(declares labels)72 235.2 Q F1 +(A)2.5 E F0(and)2.5 E F1(B)2.5 E F0(for its \214rst and second objects.)2.5 E +(Here')5 E 2.5(sw)-.55 G(hat that looks lik)331.95 235.2 Q(e:)-.1 E 270 289.2 +MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL .4 LW ST(\214rst)235.22 267.4 Q(object)230.78 +279.4 Q 54 36 333 271.2 DE ST(second)319.115 267.4 Q(object)320.78 279.4 Q 180 +271.2 216 271.2 DL 180 271.2 MT 7.2 -1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL BL 180 271.2 MT 7.2 +-1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL ST(Figure 9-1: Example of label use)222.315 312.2 Q(The)72 +336.2 Q F1(at)3.35 E F0 .85(statement in the fourth line uses the label)3.35 F +F1(A)3.35 E F0 .85(\(the beha)3.35 F .85(vior of)-.2 F F1(at)3.35 E F0 .85 +(will be e)3.35 F .85(xplained in the ne)-.15 F .85(xt sec-)-.15 F 2.5 +(tion\). W)72 348.2 R(e')-.8 E(ll see later on that labels are most useful for\ + referring to block composite objects.)-.1 E 1.224(Labels are not constants b) +97 363.8 R 1.224(ut v)-.2 F 1.225(ariables \(you can vie)-.25 F 3.725(wc)-.25 G +1.225(olon as a sort of assignment\).)323.66 363.8 R -1.1(Yo)6.225 G 3.725(uc) +1.1 G 1.225(an say)477.505 363.8 R .452(something lik)72 375.8 R(e)-.1 E F1 +.452(A: A + \(1,0\);)2.952 F F0 .452(and the ef)2.952 F .452 +(fect will be to reassign the label)-.25 F F1(A)2.952 E F0 .452 +(to designate a position one inch)2.952 F(to the right of its old v)72 387.8 Q +(alue.)-.25 E F1 2.5(10. Describing)72 411.8 R(locations)2.5 E F0 .376 +(The location of points can be described in man)97 427.4 R 2.877(yd)-.15 G(if) +299.928 427.4 Q .377(ferent w)-.25 F 2.877(ays. All)-.1 F .377 +(these forms are interchangeable)2.877 F .581(as for as the)72 439.4 R F1(pic) +3.081 E F0 .581(language syntax is concerned; where you can use one, an)3.081 F +3.08(yo)-.15 G 3.08(ft)387.15 439.4 S .58(he others that w)396.34 439.4 R .58 +(ould mak)-.1 F(e)-.1 E(semantic sense are allo)72 451.4 Q(wed.)-.25 E +(The special label)97 467 Q F1(Her)2.5 E(e)-.18 E F0(al)2.5 E -.1(wa)-.1 G +(ys refers to the current position.).1 E F1 2.5(10.1. Absolute)72 491 R +(Coordinates)2.5 E F0 .853(The simplest is absolute coordinates in inches;)97 +506.6 R F1(pic)3.353 E F0 .854(uses a Cartesian system with \(0, 0\) at the lo) +3.353 F(wer)-.25 E .593(left corner of the virtual dra)72 518.6 R .593 +(wing surf)-.15 F .592 +(ace for each picture \(that is, X increases to the right and Y increases)-.1 F +(upw)72 530.6 Q 3.232(ards\). An)-.1 F .732(absolute location may al)3.232 F +-.1(wa)-.1 G .732(ys be written in the con).1 F -.15(ve)-.4 G .732 +(ntional form as tw).15 F 3.233(oc)-.1 G(omma-separated)437.91 530.6 Q .539 +(numbers surrounded by parentheses \(and this is recommended for clarity\).)72 +542.6 R .538(In conte)5.539 F .538(xts where it creates no)-.15 F(ambiguity)72 +554.6 Q 2.5(,t)-.65 G(he pair of X and Y coordinates suf)119.69 554.6 Q +(\214ces without punctuation.)-.25 E .034(It is a good idea to a)97 570.2 R -.2 +(vo)-.2 G .034(id absolute coordinates, ho).2 F(we)-.25 E -.15(ve)-.25 G 3.634 +-.55(r. T).15 H(he).55 E 2.535(yt)-.15 G .035(end to mak)351.695 570.2 R 2.535 +(ep)-.1 G .035(icture descriptions dif)408.08 570.2 R<8c2d>-.25 E .133 +(cult to understand and modify)72 582.2 R 5.133(.I)-.65 G .133 +(nstead, there are quite a number of w)202.835 582.2 R .133 +(ays to specify locations relati)-.1 F .432 -.15(ve t)-.25 H(o).15 E F1(pic) +2.632 E F0(objects and pre)72 594.2 Q(vious locations.)-.25 E F1 2.5 +(10.2. Locations)72 621.8 R(Relati)2.5 E .2 -.1(ve t)-.1 H 2.5(oO).1 G(bjects) +197.07 621.8 Q F0 .73(The symbol)97 637.4 R F1(her)3.23 E(e)-.18 E F0(al)3.23 E +-.1(wa)-.1 G .73(ys refers to the position of the last object dra).1 F .73 +(wn or the destination of the last)-.15 F F1(mo)72 649.4 Q -.1(ve)-.1 G F0(.).1 +E 1.113(Alone and unquali\214ed, a)97 665 R F1 1.113(last cir)3.613 F(cle)-.18 +E F0 1.113(or an)3.613 F 3.613(yo)-.15 G 1.112(ther w)282.484 665 R 1.112 +(ay of specifying a closed-object or arc location)-.1 F .752 +(refers as a position to the geometric center of the object.)72 677 R .753 +(Unquali\214ed, the name of a line or spline object)5.753 F +(refers to the position of the object start.)72 689 Q(Also,)97 704.6 Q F1(pic) +3.016 E F0 .516(objects ha)3.016 F .816 -.15(ve q)-.2 H .516(uite a fe).15 F +3.016(wn)-.25 G .516(amed locations associated with them.)243.322 704.6 R .516 +(One of these is the object)5.516 F(center)72 716.6 Q 2.77(,w)-.4 G .27 +(hich can be indicated \(redundantly\) with the suf)108.52 716.6 R<8c78>-.25 E +F1(.center)2.771 E F0 .271(\(or just)2.771 F F1(.c)2.771 E F0 2.771(\). Thus,)B +F1 .271(last cir)2.771 F .271(cle .center)-.18 F F0(is)2.771 E(equi)72 728.6 Q +-.25(va)-.25 G(lent to).25 E F1(last cir)2.5 E(cle)-.18 E F0(.)A EP +%%Page: 13 13 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-13-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF 2.5 +(10.2.1. Locations)72 84 R(Relati)2.5 E .2 -.1(ve t)-.1 H 2.5(oC).1 G +(losed Objects)204.01 84 Q F0(Ev)97 99.6 Q .931(ery closed object \(box, circl\ +e, ellipse, or block composite\) also has eight compass points associ-)-.15 F +(ated with it;)72 111.6 Q 213.12 203.04 MT 0 -72 RL -108 0 RL 0 72 RL CL .4 LW +ST 159.12 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 159.12 167.04 1.44 DC ST F1(.c)161.62 169.24 +Q 159.12 131.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 159.12 131.04 1.44 DC ST(.n)155.09 127.24 Q +213.12 131.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 213.12 131.04 1.44 DC ST(.ne)208.12 127.24 Q +213.12 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 213.12 167.04 1.44 DC ST(.e)215.62 169.24 Q +213.12 203.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 213.12 203.04 1.44 DC ST(.se)208.955 211.24 Q +159.12 203.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 159.12 203.04 1.44 DC ST(.s)155.925 211.24 Q +105.12 203.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 105.12 203.04 1.44 DC ST(.sw)97.065 211.24 Q +105.12 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 105.12 167.04 1.44 DC ST(.w)92.9 169.24 Q +105.12 131.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 105.12 131.04 1.44 DC ST(.nw)96.23 127.24 Q 288 +167.04 36 DC ST 288 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 288 167.04 1.44 DC ST(.c)290.5 +169.24 Q 288 131.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 288 131.04 1.44 DC ST(.n)283.97 127.24 Q +313.488 141.552 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 313.488 141.552 1.44 DC ST(.ne)308.488 +137.752 Q 324 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 324 167.04 1.44 DC ST(.e)326.5 169.24 Q +313.488 192.528 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 313.488 192.528 1.44 DC ST(.se)309.323 +200.728 Q 288 203.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 288 203.04 1.44 DC ST(.s)284.805 211.24 +Q 262.512 192.528 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 262.512 192.528 1.44 DC ST(.sw)254.457 +200.728 Q 252 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 252 167.04 1.44 DC ST(.w)239.78 169.24 Q +262.512 141.552 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 262.512 141.552 1.44 DC ST(.nw)253.622 +137.752 Q 108 72 416.88 167.04 DE ST 416.88 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 416.88 +167.04 1.44 DC ST(.c)419.38 169.24 Q 416.88 131.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 416.88 +131.04 1.44 DC ST(.n)412.85 127.24 Q 455.04 141.552 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 455.04 +141.552 1.44 DC ST(.ne)450.04 137.752 Q 470.88 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 470.88 +167.04 1.44 DC ST(.e)473.38 169.24 Q 455.04 192.528 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 455.04 +192.528 1.44 DC ST(.se)450.875 200.728 Q 416.88 203.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 416.88 +203.04 1.44 DC ST(.s)413.685 211.24 Q 378.72 192.528 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 378.72 +192.528 1.44 DC ST(.sw)370.665 200.728 Q 362.88 167.04 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 362.88 +167.04 1.44 DC ST(.w)350.66 169.24 Q 378.72 141.552 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 378.72 +141.552 1.44 DC ST(.nw)369.83 137.752 Q F0(Figure 10-1: Compass points)230.08 +227.48 Q .588 +(these are the locations where eight compass rays from the geometric center w) +72 255.08 R .588(ould intersect the \214gure.)-.1 F(So)5.589 E .421 +(when we say)72 267.08 R F1 .421(last cir)2.921 F .421(cle .s)-.18 F F0 .421 +(we are referring to the south compass point of the last circle dra)2.921 F +2.921(wn. The)-.15 F -.15(ex)2.921 G(pla-).15 E(nation of Figure 7.3')72 279.08 +Q 2.5(sp)-.55 G(rogram is no)165.61 279.08 Q 2.5(wc)-.25 G(omplete.)230.07 +279.08 Q .135(\(In case you dislik)97 294.68 R 2.635(ec)-.1 G .135 +(ompass points, the names)182.42 294.68 R F1(.top)2.635 E F0(,)A F1(.bottom) +2.635 E F0(,)A F1(.left)2.635 E F0(and)2.635 E F1(.right)2.635 E F0 .136 +(are synon)2.636 F .136(yms for)-.15 F F1(.n)2.636 E F0(,)A F1(.s)2.636 E F0(,) +A F1(.e)72 306.68 Q F0 2.5(,a)C(nd)88.38 306.68 Q F1(.w)2.5 E F0(respecti)2.5 E +-.15(ve)-.25 G(ly; the).15 E 2.5(yc)-.15 G(an e)190.31 306.68 Q -.15(ve)-.25 G +2.5(nb).15 G 2.5(ea)228.23 306.68 S(bbre)239.61 306.68 Q(viated to)-.25 E F1 +(.t)2.5 E F0(,)A F1(.b)2.5 E F0(,)A F1(.l)2.5 E F0(and)2.5 E F1(.r)2.5 E F0 +(\).)A .44(The names)97 322.28 R F1(center)2.94 E F0(,)A F1(top)2.94 E F0(,)A +F1(bottom)2.94 E F0(,)A F1(left)2.94 E F0(and)2.94 E F1(right)2.94 E F0 .439 +(can also be used \(without the leading dot\) in a pre\214x)2.94 F 1.131 +(form mark)72 334.28 R 1.131(ed by)-.1 F F1(of)3.631 E F0 3.631(;t)C(hus,) +159.744 334.28 Q F1 1.131(center of last cir)3.631 F 1.132 +(cle and top of 2nd last ellipse ar)-.18 F 3.632(eb)-.18 G 1.132(oth v)408.224 +334.28 R 1.132(alid object r)-.1 F(efer)-.18 E(-)-.37 E(ences.)72 346.28 Q F0 +(Arc objects also ha)97 361.88 Q .3 -.15(ve c)-.2 H(ompass point; the).15 E 2.5 +(ya)-.15 G(re the compass points of the implied circle.)271.75 361.88 Q F1 2.5 +(10.2.2. Locations)72 385.88 R(Relati)2.5 E .2 -.1(ve t)-.1 H 2.5(oO).1 G +(pen Objects)204.57 385.88 Q F0(Ev)97 401.48 Q .102 +(ery open object \(line, arro)-.15 F 1.402 -.65(w, a)-.25 H .102 +(rc, or spline\) has three named points;).65 F F1(.start)2.602 E F0(,)A F1 +(.center)2.602 E F0 2.602(,a)C(nd)445.338 401.48 Q F1(.end)2.601 E F0 5.101(.T) +C(he)489.71 401.48 Q(y)-.15 E .486 +(can also be used without leading dots in the)72 413.48 R F1(of)2.986 E F0 .486 +(pre\214x form.)2.986 F .487(The center of an arc is the center of its circle,) +5.486 F -.2(bu)72 425.48 S 2.5(tt).2 G +(he center of a line, path, or spline is halfw)89.86 425.48 Q +(ay between its endpoints.)-.1 E 157.14 450.68 85.14 486.68 DL 121.14 468.68 +1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 121.14 468.68 1.44 DC ST(.center)87.01 463.68 Q 85.14 486.68 +1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 85.14 486.68 1.44 DC ST(.start)58.22 481.68 Q 157.14 450.68 +1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 157.14 450.68 1.44 DC ST(.end)133 445.68 Q 201.78 486.68 36 +-0.0000 -90.0000 DA 201.78 486.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 201.78 486.68 1.44 DC ST +(.center)167.65 481.68 Q 201.78 450.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 201.78 450.68 1.44 DC +ST(.start)174.86 445.68 Q 237.78 486.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 237.78 486.68 1.44 DC +ST(.end)213.64 481.68 Q 354.42 450.68 282.42 450.68 DL 282.42 486.68 354.42 +450.68 DL 354.42 486.68 282.42 486.68 DL 318.42 468.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 318.42 +468.68 1.44 DC ST(.center)284.29 463.68 Q 282.42 450.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL +282.42 450.68 1.44 DC ST(.start)255.5 445.68 Q 354.42 486.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL +354.42 486.68 1.44 DC ST(.end)330.28 481.68 Q 399.06 486.68 MT 36 0 RL 24 0 42 +-6 54 -18 RC 12 -12 12 -18 0 -18 RC -12 0 -30 0 -54 0 RC -36 0 RL ST 399.06 +468.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 399.06 468.68 1.44 DC ST(.center)364.93 463.68 Q +399.06 486.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 399.06 486.68 1.44 DC ST(.start)372.14 481.68 Q +399.06 450.68 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 399.06 450.68 1.44 DC ST(.end)374.92 445.68 Q +(Figure 10-2: Special points on open objects)201.06 525.52 Q F1 2.5(10.3. W)72 +565.12 R(ays of Composing P)-.65 E(ositions)-.2 E F0 .852(Once you ha)97 580.72 +R 1.152 -.15(ve t)-.2 H 1.052 -.1(wo p).15 H .852(ositions to w).1 F .852 +(ork with, there are se)-.1 F -.15(ve)-.25 G .852(ral w).15 F .851 +(ays to combine them to specify ne)-.1 F(w)-.25 E(positions.)72 592.72 Q F1 2.5 +(10.3.1. V)72 616.72 R(ector Sums and Displacements)-1 E F0(An)97 632.32 Q +2.665(yt)-.15 G .365 -.1(wo p)119.515 632.32 T .165 +(ositions may be added or subtracted to yield a ne).1 F 2.665(wp)-.25 G 2.666 +(osition. The)350.67 632.32 R .166(result is the con)2.666 F -.15(ve)-.4 G +(ntional).15 E -.15(ve)72 644.32 S 1.455(ctor sum or dif).15 F 1.455 +(ference of coordinates.)-.25 F -.15(Fo)6.455 G 3.955(re).15 G(xample,)267.265 +644.32 Q F1 1.455(last box .ne + \(0.1, 0\))3.955 F F0 1.455(is a v)3.955 F +1.455(alid position.)-.25 F(This)6.455 E -.15(ex)72 656.32 S .166 +(ample illustrates a common use, to de\214ne a position slightly of).15 F .166 +(fset from a named one \(say)-.25 F 2.666(,f)-.65 G .166(or captioning)450.784 +656.32 R(purposes\).)72 668.32 Q F1 2.5(10.3.2. Inter)72 692.32 R +(polation Between P)-.1 E(ositions)-.2 E F0 4.496(Ap)97 707.92 S 1.996 +(osition may be interpolated between an)113.716 707.92 R 4.495(yt)-.15 G 2.195 +-.1(wo p)292.74 707.92 T 4.495(ositions. The).1 F 1.995(syntax is `)4.495 F/F2 +10/Times-Italic@0 SF(fr)A(action)-.15 E F1 1.995(of the way)4.495 F(between)72 +719.92 Q F2(position1)2.557 E F1(and)2.557 E F2(position2)2.557 E F0 3.957 -.7 +(.' F)D .057(or e).55 F .058(xample, you can say)-.15 F F1 .058 +(1/3 of the way between her)2.558 F 2.558(ea)-.18 G .058(nd last ellipse) +446.094 719.92 R(.ne)72 731.92 Q F0 6.067(.T)C 1.066(he fraction may be in num\ +erator/denominator form or may be an ordinary number \(v)99.177 731.92 R 1.066 +(alues are)-.25 F F2(not)3.566 E EP +%%Page: 14 14 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-14-)279.67 48 Q 1.898(restricted to [0,1]\).)72 84 R +1.898(As an alternati)6.898 F 2.199 -.15(ve t)-.25 H 4.399(ot).15 G 1.899 +(his v)248.189 84 R 1.899(erbose syntax, you can say `)-.15 F/F1 10 +/Times-Italic@0 SF(fr)A(action)-.15 E/F2 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(<)6.899 E F1 +(position1)A F2(,)4.399 E F1(posi-)4.399 E(tion2)72 96 Q F2(>)A F0 -.7(.')C 2.5 +(;t).7 G(hus, the e)111.45 96 Q(xample could also be written)-.15 E F2(1/3)2.5 +E F0(<here, last ellipse>)2.5 E F2(.)A .4 LW 306 114 270 150 DL 306 114 MT +-3.816 6.336 RL -2.52 -2.52 RL CL BL 306 114 MT -3.816 6.336 RL -2.52 -2.52 RL +CL ST 282.024 137.976 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 282.024 137.976 1.44 DC ST(P)287.609 +140.176 Q F0(Figure 10-3:)129.69 173 Q F2(P: 1/3 of the way between last arr) +2.5 E .2 -.1(ow .)-.18 H(start and last arr).1 E .2 -.1(ow .)-.18 H(end).1 E F0 +(This f)97 200.6 Q(acility can be used, for e)-.1 E +(xample, to double connections.)-.15 E 270 254.6 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL +CL ST(yin)236.61 238.8 Q 360 254.6 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST(yang) +323.28 238.8 Q 306 232.136 270 232.136 DL 306 232.136 MT -7.2 1.8 RL 0 -3.6 RL +CL BL 306 232.136 MT -7.2 1.8 RL 0 -3.6 RL CL ST 270 241.064 306 241.064 DL 270 +241.064 MT 7.2 -1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL BL 270 241.064 MT 7.2 -1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL ST +(Figure 10-4: Doubled arro)229.94 277.6 Q(ws)-.25 E -1.1(Yo)72 305.2 S 2.5(uc) +1.1 G(an get Figure 10-4 from the follo)95.06 305.2 Q(wing program:)-.25 E/F3 +10/Courier@0 SF(.PS)108 323.2 Q(A: box "yin"; move;)108 335.2 Q(B: box "yang";) +108 347.2 Q(arrow right at 1/4 <A.e,A.ne>;)108 359.2 Q(arrow left)108 371.2 Q +(at 1/4 <B.w,B.sw>;)180 371.2 Q(.PE)108 383.2 Q F0 +(Note the use of the short form for interpolating points.)72 404.8 Q F2 2.5 +(10.3.3. Pr)72 428.8 R(ojections of P)-.18 E(oints)-.2 E F0(Gi)97 444.4 Q -.15 +(ve)-.25 G 2.913(nt).15 G .613 -.1(wo p)126.733 444.4 T(ositions).1 E F1(p) +2.913 E F0(and)2.913 E F1(q)2.913 E F0 2.913(,t)C .413(he position)219.258 +444.4 R F2(\()2.913 E F1(p)A F2(,)A F1(q)2.912 E F2(\))A F0 .412 +(has the X coordinate of)2.912 F F1(p)2.912 E F0 .412(and the Y coordinate of) +2.912 F F1(q)2.912 E F0(.)A 1.664(This can be helpful in placing an object at \ +one of the corners of the virtual box de\214ned by tw)72 456.4 R 4.164(oo)-.1 G +(ther)488.45 456.4 Q(objects.)72 468.4 Q 360 493.6 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 360 493.6 +1.44 DC ST F2(\(B,A\) is her)367.2 488.6 Q(e)-.18 E 360 565.6 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL +360 565.6 1.44 DC ST(B)367.2 575 Q 216 565.6 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 216 565.6 1.44 +DC ST(\(A,B\) is her)155.38 575 Q(e)-.18 E 216 493.6 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 216 +493.6 1.44 DC ST(A)208.8 488.6 Q F0(Figure 10-5: Using \()212.45 595.8 Q F1(x)A +F0(,)A F1(y)2.5 E F0 2.5(\)c)C(omposition)318.54 595.8 Q F2 2.5(10.4. Using)72 +631.8 R(Locations)2.5 E F0 .656(There are four w)97 647.4 R .656 +(ays to use locations;)-.1 F F2(at)3.156 E F0(,)A F2(fr)3.156 E(om)-.18 E F0(,) +A F2(to)3.156 E F0 3.156(,a)C(nd)310.72 647.4 Q F2(with)3.155 E F0 5.655(.A)C +.655(ll three are object modi\214ers; that is,)358.14 647.4 R +(you use them as suf)72 659.4 Q<8c78>-.25 E(es to a dra)-.15 E(wing command.) +-.15 E(The)97 675 Q F2(at)3.623 E F0 1.123(modi\214er says to dra)3.623 F +-6.122 3.623(wa c)-.15 H 1.124 +(losed object or arc with its center at the follo)233.852 675 R 1.124 +(wing location, or to)-.25 F(dra)72 687 Q 2.5(wal)-.15 G(ine/spline/arro)104.06 +687 Q 2.5(ws)-.25 G(tarting at the follo)175.19 687 Q(wing location.)-.25 E +(The)97 702.6 Q F2(to)3.648 E F0 1.147 +(modi\214er can be used alone to specify a mo)3.647 F 1.447 -.15(ve d)-.15 H +3.647(estination. The).15 F F2(fr)3.647 E(om)-.18 E F0 1.147 +(modi\214er can be used)3.647 F(alone in the same w)72 714.6 Q(ay as)-.1 E F2 +(at)2.5 E F0(.)A EP +%%Page: 15 15 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-15-)279.67 48 Q(The)97 84 Q/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(fr) +2.677 E(om)-.18 E F0(and)2.677 E F1(to)2.677 E F0 .177 +(modi\214ers can be used with a)2.677 F F1(line)2.677 E F0(or)2.677 E F1(ar) +2.677 E(c)-.18 E F0 .177(command to specify start and end points of)2.677 F +1.873(the object.)72 96 R 1.873(In conjunction with named locations, this of) +6.873 F 1.873(fers a v)-.25 F 1.873(ery \215e)-.15 F 1.872 +(xible mechanism for connecting)-.15 F 2.5(objects. F)72 108 R(or e)-.15 E +(xample, the follo)-.15 E(wing program)-.25 E/F2 10/Courier@0 SF(.PS)108 126 Q +(box "from")108 138 Q(move 0.75;)108 150 Q(ellipse "to")108 162 Q +(arc cw from 1/3 of the way \\)108 174 Q +(between last box .n and last box .ne to last ellipse .n;)132 186 Q(.PE)108 198 +Q F0(yields:)72 219.6 Q 261 293.328 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL .4 LW ST +(from)224.28 277.528 Q 54 36 342 275.328 DE ST(to)338.11 277.528 Q 292.464 +309.6 72.015 -46.5394 -133.4606 DA(Figure 10-6: A trick)153.135 316.328 Q 2.5 +(yc)-.15 G(onnection speci\214ed with English-lik)245.195 316.328 Q 2.5(es)-.1 +G(yntax)400.645 316.328 Q(The)97 343.928 Q F1(with)3.146 E F0 .646 +(modi\214er allo)3.146 F .646 +(ws you to identify a named attachment point of an object with another point.) +-.25 F(This is v)72 355.928 Q(ery useful for connecting objects in a natural w) +-.15 E(ay)-.1 E 5(.F)-.65 G(or an e)316.19 355.928 Q(xample, consider these tw) +-.15 E 2.5(op)-.1 G(rograms:)459.52 355.928 Q 162 418.928 MT 0 -36 RL -36 0 RL +0 36 RL CL ST 216 427.928 MT 0 -54 RL -54 0 RL 0 54 RL CL ST F1 +(box wid 0.5 ht 0.5; box wid 0.75 ht 0.75)106.075 473.328 Q 396 427.928 MT 0 +-36 RL -36 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST 450 427.928 MT 0 -54 RL -54 0 RL 0 54 RL CL ST +(box wid 0.5 ht 0.5; box wid 0.75 ht 0.75 with .sw at last box .se;)289.8 +473.328 Q F0(Figure 10-7: Using the)181.48 494.128 Q F1(with)2.5 E F0 +(modi\214er for attachments)2.5 E F1 2.5(10.5. The)72 530.128 R +(chop modi\214er)2.5 E F0 .99(When dra)97 545.728 R .99 +(wing lines between circles that don')-.15 F 3.49(ti)-.18 G .99 +(ntersect them at a compass point, it is useful to be)294.95 545.728 R +(able to shorten a line by the radius of the circle at either or both ends.)72 +557.728 Q(Consider the follo)5 E(wing program:)-.25 E(.PS)108 575.728 Q +(circle "x")108 587.728 Q(circle "y" at 1st circle - \(0.4, 0.6\))108 599.728 Q +(circle "z" at 1st circle + \(0.4, -0.6\))108 611.728 Q(arro)108 623.728 Q 2.5 +(wf)-.25 G(rom 1st circle to 2nd circle chop)136.9 623.728 Q(arro)108 635.728 Q +2.5(wf)-.25 G(rom 2nd circle to 3rd circle chop)136.9 635.728 Q(arro)108 +647.728 Q 2.5(wf)-.25 G(rom 3rd circle to 1st circle chop)136.9 647.728 Q(.PE) +108 659.728 Q(It yields the follo)72 681.328 Q(wing:)-.25 E EP +%%Page: 16 16 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-16-)279.67 48 Q 288 102 18 DC .4 LW ST(x)285.5 104.2 Q +259.2 145.2 18 DC ST(y)256.7 147.4 Q 316.8 145.2 18 DC ST(z)314.58 147.4 Q +269.136 130.224 277.992 116.976 DL 269.208 130.224 MT 2.52 -6.984 RL 3.024 +2.016 RL CL BL 269.208 130.224 MT 2.52 -6.984 RL 3.024 2.016 RL CL ST 298.8 +145.2 277.2 145.2 DL 298.8 145.2 MT -7.2 1.8 RL 0 -3.6 RL CL BL 298.8 145.2 MT +-7.2 1.8 RL 0 -3.6 RL CL ST 297.936 116.976 306.792 130.224 DL 298.008 116.976 +MT 5.472 4.968 RL -3.024 2.016 RL CL BL 298.008 116.976 MT 5.472 4.968 RL +-3.024 2.016 RL CL ST(Figure 10-8: The)224.39 186.2 Q/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF +(chop)2.5 E F0(modi\214er)2.5 E .458(Notice that the)72 213.8 R F1(chop)2.958 E +F0(attrib)2.958 E .459(ute mo)-.2 F -.15(ve)-.15 G 2.959(sa).15 G(rro)227.57 +213.8 Q .459(wheads rather than stepping on them. By def)-.25 F .459(ault, the) +-.1 F F1(chop)2.959 E F0(modi-)2.959 E .438 +(\214er shortens both ends of the line by)72 225.8 R F1(cir)2.937 E(clerad)-.18 +E F0 5.437(.B)C 2.937(ys)276.57 225.8 S(uf)288.397 225.8 Q .437 +(\214xing it with a number you can change the amount)-.25 F(of chopping.)72 +237.8 Q .624(If you say)97 253.4 R F1 .624(line ... chop)3.124 F/F2 10 +/Times-Italic@0 SF(r1)3.124 E F1(chop)3.124 E F2(r2)3.124 E F0(with)3.124 E F2 +(r1)3.124 E F0(and)3.124 E F2(r2)3.124 E F0 .624(both numbers, you can v)3.124 +F .625(ary the amount of chop-)-.25 F .082(ping at both ends.)72 265.4 R -1.1 +(Yo)5.081 G 2.581(uc)1.1 G .081(an use this in combination with trigonometric \ +functions to write code that will deal)171.577 265.4 R(with more comple)72 +277.4 Q 2.5(xi)-.15 G(ntersections.)154.9 277.4 Q F1 2.5(11. Object)72 301.4 R +(Gr)2.5 E(oups)-.18 E F0(There are tw)97 317 Q 2.5(od)-.1 G(if)159.93 317 Q +(ferent w)-.25 E(ays to group objects in)-.1 E F1(pic)2.5 E F0(;)A F2(br)2.5 E +(ace gr)-.15 E(ouping)-.45 E F0(and)2.5 E F2(bloc)2.5 E 2.5(kc)-.2 G(omposites) +419.02 317 Q F0(.)A F1 2.5(11.1. Brace)72 341 R(Gr)2.5 E(ouping)-.18 E F0 .503 +(The simpler method is simply to group a set of objects within curly brack)97 +356.6 R .504(et or brace characters.)-.1 F(On)5.504 E -.15(ex)72 368.6 S 1.491 +(it from this grouping, the current position and direction are restored to the\ +ir v).15 F 1.49(alue when the opening)-.25 F(brace w)72 380.6 Q +(as encountered.)-.1 E F1 2.5(11.2. Block)72 404.6 R(Composites)2.5 E F0 2.553 +(Ab)97 420.2 S .053(lock composite object is created a series of commands encl\ +osed by square brack)111.773 420.2 R 2.554(ets. 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The)-.15 F(program fragment)2.5 E +/F3 10/Courier@0 SF(A: [)108 462.2 Q(circle;)132 474.2 Q +(line up 1 at last circle .n;)132 486.2 Q(line down 1 at last circle .s;)132 +498.2 Q(line right 1 at last circle .e;)132 510.2 Q +(line left 1 at last circle .w;)132 522.2 Q +(box dashed with .nw at last circle .se + \(0.2, -0.2\);)132 534.2 Q +(Caption: center of last box;)132 546.2 Q(])108 558.2 Q F0 .852 +(yields the block in \214gure 11-1, which we sho)72 579.8 R 3.352(wb)-.25 G +.853(oth with and without its attachment points.)274.398 579.8 R .853 +(The block')5.853 F(s)-.55 E(location becomes the v)72 591.8 Q(alue of)-.25 E +F1(A)2.5 E F0(.)A EP +%%Page: 17 17 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-17-)279.67 48 Q 178.56 175.44 18 DC .4 LW ST 178.56 +85.44 178.56 157.44 DL 178.56 265.44 178.56 193.44 DL 268.56 175.44 196.56 +175.44 DL 88.56 175.44 160.56 175.44 DL 209.304 238.584 205.704 238.584 DL +216.504 238.584 212.904 238.584 DL 223.704 238.584 220.104 238.584 DL 230.904 +238.584 227.304 238.584 DL 238.104 238.584 234.504 238.584 DL 245.304 238.584 +241.704 238.584 DL 252.504 238.584 248.904 238.584 DL 259.704 238.584 256.104 +238.584 DL 259.704 234.984 259.704 238.584 DL 259.704 228.504 259.704 232.104 +DL 259.704 222.024 259.704 225.624 DL 259.704 215.544 259.704 219.144 DL +259.704 209.064 259.704 212.664 DL 259.704 202.584 259.704 206.184 DL 256.104 +202.584 259.704 202.584 DL 248.904 202.584 252.504 202.584 DL 241.704 202.584 +245.304 202.584 DL 234.504 202.584 238.104 202.584 DL 227.304 202.584 230.904 +202.584 DL 220.104 202.584 223.704 202.584 DL 212.904 202.584 216.504 202.584 +DL 205.704 202.584 209.304 202.584 DL 205.704 206.184 205.704 202.584 DL +205.704 212.664 205.704 209.064 DL 205.704 219.144 205.704 215.544 DL 205.704 +225.624 205.704 222.024 DL 205.704 232.104 205.704 228.504 DL 205.704 238.584 +205.704 234.984 DL 396 175.44 18 DC ST 396 85.44 396 157.44 DL 396 265.44 396 +193.44 DL 486 175.44 414 175.44 DL 306 175.44 378 175.44 DL 426.744 238.584 +423.144 238.584 DL 433.944 238.584 430.344 238.584 DL 441.144 238.584 437.544 +238.584 DL 448.344 238.584 444.744 238.584 DL 455.544 238.584 451.944 238.584 +DL 462.744 238.584 459.144 238.584 DL 469.944 238.584 466.344 238.584 DL +477.144 238.584 473.544 238.584 DL 477.144 234.984 477.144 238.584 DL 477.144 +228.504 477.144 232.104 DL 477.144 222.024 477.144 225.624 DL 477.144 215.544 +477.144 219.144 DL 477.144 209.064 477.144 212.664 DL 477.144 202.584 477.144 +206.184 DL 473.544 202.584 477.144 202.584 DL 466.344 202.584 469.944 202.584 +DL 459.144 202.584 462.744 202.584 DL 451.944 202.584 455.544 202.584 DL +444.744 202.584 448.344 202.584 DL 437.544 202.584 441.144 202.584 DL 430.344 +202.584 433.944 202.584 DL 423.144 202.584 426.744 202.584 DL 423.144 206.184 +423.144 202.584 DL 423.144 212.664 423.144 209.064 DL 423.144 219.144 423.144 +215.544 DL 423.144 225.624 423.144 222.024 DL 423.144 232.104 423.144 228.504 +DL 423.144 238.584 423.144 234.984 DL 396 175.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 396 175.44 +1.44 DC ST/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(.c)398.5 177.64 Q 396 85.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL +396 85.44 1.44 DC ST(.n)391.97 81.64 Q 486 85.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 486 85.44 +1.44 DC ST(.ne)481 81.64 Q 486 175.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 486 175.44 1.44 DC ST +(.e)488.5 177.64 Q 486 265.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 486 265.44 1.44 DC ST(.se) +481.835 273.64 Q 396 265.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 396 265.44 1.44 DC ST(.s)392.805 +273.64 Q 306 265.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 306 265.44 1.44 DC ST(.sw)297.945 273.64 +Q 306 175.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 306 175.44 1.44 DC ST(.w)293.78 177.64 Q 306 +85.44 1.44 DC 0.5000 FL 306 85.44 1.44 DC ST(.nw)297.11 81.64 Q F0 +(Figure 11-1: A sample composite object)207.59 289.88 Q 3.042 -.8(To r)72 +317.48 T 1.442(efer to one of the composite').8 F 3.942(sa)-.55 G 1.442 +(ttachment points, you can say \(for e)223.764 317.48 R(xample\))-.15 E F1 +3.941(A.)3.941 G(s)425.667 317.48 Q F0 6.441(.F)C 1.441(or purposes of)443.908 +317.48 R .063(object naming, composites are a class.)72 329.48 R -1.1(Yo)5.063 +G 2.563(uc)1.1 G .063(ould write)253.531 329.48 R F1 .064(last [] .s)2.564 F F0 +.064(as an equi)2.564 F -.25(va)-.25 G .064(lent refrence, usable an).25 F +(ywhere)-.15 E 2.5(al)72 341.48 S(ocation is needed.)81.72 341.48 Q +(This construction is v)5 E(ery important for putting together lar)-.15 E +(ge, multi-part diagrams.)-.18 E .285(Blocks are also a v)97 357.08 R .284 +(ariable-scoping mechanism, lik)-.25 F 2.784(ea)-.1 G/F2 10/Times-Italic@0 SF +(gr)A(of)-.45 E(f)-.18 E F0 .284(\(1\) en)B 2.784(vironment. 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GNU)259.271 205.2 R F2(gpic)2.614 E +F0(remo)2.614 E -.15(ve)-.15 G(s).15 E(this restriction.)72 217.2 Q .913 +(The combination of block v)97 232.8 R .913 +(ariable scoping, assignability of labels and the macro f)-.25 F .912 +(acility that we')-.1 F(ll)-.1 E .406 +(describe later on can be used to simulate functions with local v)72 244.8 R +.407(ariables \(just wrap the macro body in block)-.25 F(braces\).)72 256.8 Q +F2 2.5(12. 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28.8 RL CL ST 169.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL +169.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 169.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL +-14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 169.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 +RL CL ST 205.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 205.2 120 MT +0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 205.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 +28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 205.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 241.2 +120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 241.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL +-14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 241.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL +0.0000 FL 241.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 277.2 120 MT 0 +-28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 277.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 +28.8 RL CL ST 277.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 277.2 +148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 288 156 MT 0 -72 RL -216 0 RL 0 +72 RL CL ST(Jumpers in state 1110010)129.03 172.6 Q 349.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL +-14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 349.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL +CL ST 349.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 349.2 148.8 +MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 385.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 +28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 385.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 385.2 +148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 385.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL +-14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 421.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL +1.0000 FL 421.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 421.2 148.8 MT 0 +-28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 421.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL +0 28.8 RL CL ST 457.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 457.2 +120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 457.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 +RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 457.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST +493.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 493.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 +RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 493.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL +0.0000 FL 493.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 529.2 120 MT 0 +-28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 1.0000 FL 529.2 120 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 +28.8 RL CL ST 529.2 148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL 0.0000 FL 529.2 +148.8 MT 0 -28.8 RL -14.4 0 RL 0 28.8 RL CL ST 540 156 MT 0 -72 RL -216 0 RL 0 +72 RL CL ST(Jumpers in state 1001011)381.03 172.6 Q +(Figure 14-1: Sample use of a macro)216.345 193.4 Q .645(This macro e)72 221 R +.645(xample illustrates ho)-.15 F 3.145(wy)-.25 G .645 +(ou can combine [], brace grouping, and v)225.085 221 R .644 +(ariable assignment to write)-.25 F(true functions.)72 233 Q .251 +(One detail the e)97 248.6 R .251(xample abo)-.15 F .552 -.15(ve d)-.15 H .252 +(oes not illustrate is the f).15 F .252(act that macro ar)-.1 F .252 +(gument parsing is not tok)-.18 F(en-)-.1 E 2.662(oriented. If)72 260.6 R .162 +(you call)2.662 F/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF .162(jumper\( 1 \))2.662 F F0 2.662(,t) +C .162(he v)213.104 260.6 R .161(alue of $1 will be)-.25 F F1 2.661("1")2.661 G +F0 2.661(.Y)324.673 260.6 S .161(ou could e)335.954 260.6 R -.15(ve)-.25 G +2.661(nc).15 G(all)399.077 260.6 Q F1 2.661(jumper\(big string\))2.661 F F0(to) +2.661 E(gi)72 272.6 Q .3 -.15(ve $)-.25 H 2.5(1t).15 G(he v)106.6 272.6 Q(alue) +-.25 E F1 2.5("big string")2.5 F F0(.)A .272(If you w)97 288.2 R .272 +(ant to pass in a coordinate pair)-.1 F 2.773(,y)-.4 G .273(ou can a)265.03 +288.2 R -.2(vo)-.2 G .273(id getting tripped up by the comma by wrapping).2 F +(the pair in parentheses.)72 300.2 Q(Macros persist through pictures.)97 315.8 +Q 1.6 -.8(To u)5 H(nde\214ne a mcro, say).8 E F1(undef)2.5 E/F2 10 +/Times-Italic@0 SF(name)2.5 E F0 2.5(;f)C(or e)386.16 315.8 Q(xample,)-.15 E/F3 +10/Courier@0 SF(undef jumper)108 333.8 Q(undef jumperblock)108 345.8 Q F0 -.1 +(wo)72 367.4 S(uld unde\214ne the tw).1 E 2.5(om)-.1 G +(acros in the jumper block e)176.24 367.4 Q(xample.)-.15 E F1 2.5 +(15. Import/Export)72 391.4 R(Commands)2.5 E F0(Commands that import or e)97 +407 Q(xport data between)-.15 E F1(pic)2.5 E F0(and its en)2.5 E +(vironment are described here.)-.4 E F1 2.5(15.1. File)72 431 R(and T)2.5 E +(able Insertion)-.92 E F0(The statement)97 446.6 Q F3(copy)108 464.6 Q F2 +(\214lename)2.5 E F0 .465(inserts the contents of)72 482.6 R F2(\214lename) +2.965 E F0 .465(in the)2.965 F F1(pic)2.965 E F0 .465(input stream.)2.965 F(An) +5.465 E 2.965(y.)-.15 G .464(PS/.PE pair in the \214le will be ignored.)323.055 +482.6 R(This,)5.464 E(you can use this to include pre-generated images.)72 +494.6 Q 2.5(Av)97 510.2 S(ariant of this statement replicates the)111.47 510.2 +Q F1(copy thru)2.5 E F0(feature of)2.5 E F2(gr)2.5 E(ap)-.15 E F0 2.5 +(\(1\). If)B(you say)2.5 E F3(copy)108 528.2 Q F2(\214lename)2.5 E F3(thru)2.5 +E F2(macr)2.5 E(o)-.45 E F0 .708(calls the)72 549.8 R F2(macr)3.208 E(o)-.45 E +F0 .708(\(which may be either a name or replacement te)3.208 F .708 +(xt\) on the ar)-.15 F .709(guments obtained by breaking)-.18 F .432 +(each line of the \214le into blank-separated \214elds.)72 561.8 R .432 +(The macro may ha)5.432 F .732 -.15(ve u)-.2 H 2.932(pt).15 G 2.931(o9a)371.376 +561.8 S -.18(rg)391.678 561.8 S 2.931(uments. The).18 F(replacement)2.931 E(te) +72 573.8 Q .709(xt may be delimited by braces or by a pair of instances of an) +-.15 F 3.21(yc)-.15 G .71(haracter not appearing in the rest of the)342.13 +573.8 R(te)72 585.8 Q(xt.)-.15 E(If you write)97 601.4 Q F3(copy thru)108 619.4 +Q F2(macr)2.5 E(o)-.45 E F0 +(omitting the \214lename, lines to be parsed are tak)72 641 Q +(en from the input source up to the ne)-.1 E(xt .PE.)-.15 E .404 +(In either of the)97 656.6 R F1(copy)2.904 E F0 .404(commands, GNU)2.904 F F1 +(gpic)2.904 E F0 .403(permits a trailing `)2.904 F F1(until)A F2(wor)2.903 E(d) +-.37 E F0 2.903('c)C .403(lause to be added which)406.298 656.6 R .458 +(terminates the cop)72 668.6 R 2.958(yw)-.1 G .458(hen the \214rst w)161.314 +668.6 R .459(ord matches the ar)-.1 F .459(gument \(the def)-.18 F .459 +(ault beha)-.1 F .459(vior is therefore equi)-.2 F -.25(va)-.25 G(lent).25 E +(to)72 680.6 Q F1(until .PE)2.5 E F0(,)A(Accordingly)97 696.2 Q 2.5(,t)-.65 G +(he command)154.12 696.2 Q F3(.PS)122 711.8 Q +(copy thru % circle at \($1,$2\) % until "END")122 723.8 Q EP +%%Page: 22 22 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-22-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Courier@0 SF 6(12)122 84 S 6(34) +122 96 S 6(56)122 108 S(END)122 120 Q(box)122 132 Q(.PE)122 144 Q F0(is equi)72 +159.6 Q -.25(va)-.25 G(lent to).25 E F1(.PS)122 175.2 Q(circle at \(1,2\))122 +187.2 Q(circle at \(3,4\))122 199.2 Q(circle at \(5,6\))122 211.2 Q(box)122 +223.2 Q(.PE)122 235.2 Q/F2 10/Times-Bold@0 SF 2.5(15.2. Deb)72 259.2 R +(ug Messages)-.2 E F0 .978(The command)97 274.8 R F2(print)3.478 E F0 .977 +(accepts an)3.478 F 3.477(yn)-.15 G .977(umber of comma-separated ar)239.768 +274.8 R .977(guments, concatenates their output)-.18 F .805 +(forms, and writes the result to standard error)72 286.8 R 5.805(.E)-.55 G .805 +(ach ar)269.24 286.8 R .805(gument must be an e)-.18 F .805 +(xpression, a position, or a te)-.15 F(xt)-.15 E(string.)72 298.8 Q F2 2.5 +(15.3. Escape)72 322.8 R(to P)2.5 E(ost-Pr)-.2 E(ocessor)-.18 E F0 +(If you write)97 338.4 Q F2(command)108 356.4 Q/F3 10/Times-Italic@0 SF(ar)2.5 +E(g)-.37 E F0 1.666(...)1.666 G F2(pic)72 378 Q F0 1.548(concatenates the ar) +4.048 F 1.547(guments and pass them through as a line to trof)-.18 F 4.047(fo) +-.25 G 4.047(rT)383.025 378 S(E)394.845 380.24 Q 4.047(X. Each)-1.25 -2.24 N F3 +(ar)4.047 E(g)-.37 E F0 1.547(must be an)4.047 F -.15(ex)72 390 S .084 +(pression, a position, or te).15 F 2.584(xt. This)-.15 F .084(has a similar ef) +2.584 F .084(fect to a line be)-.25 F .084(ginning with)-.15 F F2(.)2.584 E F0 +(or)5.085 E F2(\\)2.585 E F0 2.585(,b)C .085(ut allo)425.085 390 R .085 +(ws the v)-.25 F(alues)-.25 E(of v)72 402 Q(ariables to be passed through.)-.25 +E F2 2.5(15.4. Executing)72 426 R(Shell Commands)2.5 E F0(The command)97 441.6 +Q F1(sh {)108 459.6 Q F3(anything)6 E(...)-.15 E F1(})6 E F0(macroe)72 481.2 Q +1.563(xpands the te)-.15 F 1.563(xt in braces, then e)-.15 F -.15(xe)-.15 G +1.563(cutes it as a shell command.).15 F 1.563(This could be used to generate) +6.563 F .755(images or data tables for later inclusion.)72 493.2 R .756 +(The delimiters sho)5.756 F .756(wn as {} here may also be tw)-.25 F 3.256(oc) +-.1 G .756(opies of an)453.758 493.2 R(y)-.15 E 1.397 +(one character not present in the shell command te)72 505.2 R 3.897(xt. In)-.15 +F 1.397(either case, the body may contain balanced {})3.897 F 2.5 +(pairs. Strings)72 517.2 R +(in the body may contain balanced or unbalanced braces in an)2.5 E 2.5(yc)-.15 +G(ase.)385.4 517.2 Q F2 2.5(16. Contr)72 541.2 R(ol-\215o)-.18 E 2.5(wc)-.1 G +(onstructs)150.6 541.2 Q F0(The)97 556.8 Q F2(pic)2.5 E F0(language pro)2.5 E +(vides conditionals and looping.)-.15 E -.15(Fo)5 G 2.5(re).15 G(xample,)332.64 +556.8 Q F1(pi = atan2\(0, -1\);)108 574.8 Q(for i = 0 to 2 * pi by 0.1 do {)108 +586.8 Q("-" at \(i/2, 0\);)132 598.8 Q("." at \(i/2, sin\(i\)/2\);)132 610.8 Q +(":" at \(i/2, cos\(i\)/2\);)132 622.8 Q(})108 634.8 Q F0(which yields this:)72 +656.4 Q EP +%%Page: 23 23 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-23-)279.67 48 Q(-)174.735 122.2 Q(.)175.15 122.2 Q(:) +175.01 86.2 Q(-)178.335 122.2 Q(.)178.75 118.6 Q(:)178.61 86.344 Q(-)181.935 +122.2 Q(.)182.35 115.072 Q(:)182.21 86.92 Q(-)185.535 122.2 Q(.)185.95 111.544 +Q(:)185.81 87.784 Q(-)189.135 122.2 Q(.)189.55 108.16 Q(:)189.41 89.008 Q(-) +192.735 122.2 Q(.)193.15 104.92 Q(:)193.01 90.592 Q(-)196.335 122.2 Q(.)196.75 +101.896 Q(:)196.61 92.464 Q(-)199.935 122.2 Q(.)200.35 99.016 Q(:)200.21 94.696 +Q(-)203.535 122.2 Q(.)203.95 96.352 Q(:)203.81 97.144 Q(-)207.135 122.2 Q(.) +207.55 93.976 Q(:)207.41 99.808 Q(-)210.735 122.2 Q(.)211.15 91.888 Q(:)211.01 +102.76 Q(-)214.335 122.2 Q(.)214.75 90.088 Q(:)214.61 105.856 Q(-)217.935 122.2 +Q(.)218.35 88.648 Q(:)218.21 109.168 Q(-)221.535 122.2 Q(.)221.95 87.496 Q(:) +221.81 112.552 Q(-)225.135 122.2 Q(.)225.55 86.704 Q(:)225.41 116.08 Q(-) +228.735 122.2 Q(.)229.15 86.272 Q(:)229.01 119.68 Q(-)232.335 122.2 Q(.)232.75 +86.2 Q(:)232.61 123.28 Q(-)235.935 122.2 Q(.)236.35 86.488 Q(:)236.21 126.808 Q +(-)239.535 122.2 Q(.)239.95 87.136 Q(:)239.81 130.408 Q(-)243.135 122.2 Q(.) +243.55 88.144 Q(:)243.41 133.864 Q(-)246.735 122.2 Q(.)247.15 89.44 Q(:)247.01 +137.176 Q(-)250.335 122.2 Q(.)250.75 91.096 Q(:)250.61 140.344 Q(-)253.935 +122.2 Q(.)254.35 93.112 Q(:)254.21 143.368 Q(-)257.535 122.2 Q(.)257.95 95.344 +Q(:)257.81 146.176 Q(-)261.135 122.2 Q(.)261.55 97.864 Q(:)261.41 148.768 Q(-) +264.735 122.2 Q(.)265.15 100.672 Q(:)265.01 151.072 Q(-)268.335 122.2 Q(.) +268.75 103.624 Q(:)268.61 153.016 Q(-)271.935 122.2 Q(.)272.35 106.792 Q(:) +272.21 154.744 Q(-)275.535 122.2 Q(.)275.95 110.176 Q(:)275.81 156.112 Q(-) +279.135 122.2 Q(.)279.55 113.56 Q(:)279.41 157.12 Q(-)282.735 122.2 Q(.)283.15 +117.088 Q(:)283.01 157.84 Q(-)286.335 122.2 Q(.)286.75 120.688 Q(:)286.61 158.2 +Q(-)289.935 122.2 Q(.)290.35 124.288 Q(:)290.21 158.128 Q(-)293.535 122.2 Q(.) +293.95 127.888 Q(:)293.81 157.768 Q(-)297.135 122.2 Q(.)297.55 131.416 Q(:) +297.41 156.976 Q(-)300.735 122.2 Q(.)301.15 134.8 Q(:)301.01 155.896 Q(-) +304.335 122.2 Q(.)304.75 138.112 Q(:)304.61 154.456 Q(-)307.935 122.2 Q(.) +308.35 141.28 Q(:)308.21 152.728 Q(-)311.535 122.2 Q(.)311.95 144.232 Q(:) +311.81 150.64 Q(-)315.135 122.2 Q(.)315.55 146.968 Q(:)315.41 148.336 Q(-) +318.735 122.2 Q(.)319.15 149.416 Q(:)319.01 145.744 Q(-)322.335 122.2 Q(.) +322.75 151.648 Q(:)322.61 142.864 Q(-)325.935 122.2 Q(.)326.35 153.592 Q(:) +326.21 139.84 Q(-)329.535 122.2 Q(.)329.95 155.176 Q(:)329.81 136.6 Q(-)333.135 +122.2 Q(.)333.55 156.472 Q(:)333.41 133.288 Q(-)336.735 122.2 Q(.)337.15 +157.408 Q(:)337.01 129.76 Q(-)340.335 122.2 Q(.)340.75 157.984 Q(:)340.61 +126.232 Q(-)343.935 122.2 Q(.)344.35 158.2 Q(:)344.21 122.632 Q(-)347.535 122.2 +Q(.)347.95 158.056 Q(:)347.81 119.032 Q(-)351.135 122.2 Q(.)351.55 157.552 Q(:) +351.41 115.504 Q(-)354.735 122.2 Q(.)355.15 156.688 Q(:)355.01 111.976 Q(-) +358.335 122.2 Q(.)358.75 155.536 Q(:)358.61 108.592 Q(-)361.935 122.2 Q(.) +362.35 154.024 Q(:)362.21 105.352 Q(-)365.535 122.2 Q(.)365.95 152.152 Q(:) +365.81 102.256 Q(-)369.135 122.2 Q(.)369.55 149.992 Q(:)369.41 99.376 Q(-) +372.735 122.2 Q(.)373.15 147.616 Q(:)373.01 96.712 Q(-)376.335 122.2 Q(.)376.75 +144.952 Q(:)376.61 94.264 Q(-)379.935 122.2 Q(.)380.35 142 Q(:)380.21 92.176 Q +(-)383.535 122.2 Q(.)383.95 138.904 Q(:)383.81 90.304 Q(-)387.135 122.2 Q(.) +387.55 135.664 Q(:)387.41 88.792 Q(-)390.735 122.2 Q(.)391.15 132.28 Q(:)391.01 +87.64 Q(-)394.335 122.2 Q(.)394.75 128.752 Q(:)394.61 86.776 Q(-)397.935 122.2 +Q(.)398.35 125.224 Q(:)398.21 86.344 Q(Figure 16-1: Plotting with a)214.79 179 +Q/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF -.25(fo)2.5 G(r).25 E F0(loop)2.5 E(The syntax of the) +72 206.6 Q F1 -.25(fo)2.5 G(r).25 E F0(statement is:)2.5 E F1 -.25(fo)108 224.6 +S(r).25 E/F2 10/Times-Italic@0 SF(variable)2.5 E F1(=)2.5 E F2 -.2(ex)2.5 G +(pr1).2 E F1(to)2.5 E F2 -.2(ex)2.5 G(pr2).2 E F0([)2.5 E F1(by)A F0([)2.5 E F1 +(*)A F0(])A F2 -.2(ex)C(pr3).2 E F0(])A F1(do)2.5 E F2 2.5(Xb)2.5 G(ody X) +311.14 224.6 Q F0 .679(The semantics are as follo)72 242.6 R 3.179(ws: Set)-.25 +F F2(variable)3.179 E F0(to)3.179 E F2 -.2(ex)3.179 G(pr).2 E F0 -3.179 3.179 +(1. W)D .68(hile the v)305.25 242.6 R .68(alue of)-.25 F F2(variable)3.18 E F0 +.68(is less than or equal to)3.18 F F2 -.2(ex)72 254.6 S(pr2).2 E F0 3.407(,d)C +(o)105.477 254.6 Q F2(body)3.407 E F0 .907(and increment)3.407 F F2(variable) +3.407 E F0(by)3.407 E F2 -.2(ex)3.406 G(pr3).2 E F0 3.406(;i)C(f)279.654 254.6 +Q F1(by)3.406 E F0 .906(is not gi)3.406 F -.15(ve)-.25 G .906(n, increment).15 +F F2(variable)3.406 E F0 .906(by 1.)3.406 F(If)5.906 E F2 -.2(ex)3.406 G(pr3).2 +E F0(is)3.406 E(pre\214x)72 266.6 Q .976(ed by)-.15 F F1(*)3.476 E F0(then) +3.476 E F2(variable)3.476 E F0 .976(will instead be multiplied by)3.476 F F2 +-.2(ex)3.476 G(pr3).2 E F0(.)A F2(X)5.976 E F0 .976(can be an)3.476 F 3.476(yc) +-.15 G .977(haracter not occurring in)402.49 266.6 R F2(body)72 278.6 Q F0 2.5 +(;o)C 2.5(rt)101.72 278.6 S(he tw)110.33 278.6 Q 2.5(oX)-.1 G 2.5(sm)146.89 +278.6 S(ay be paired braces \(as in the)161.06 278.6 Q F1(sh)2.5 E F0 +(command\).)2.5 E(The syntax of the)97 294.2 Q F1(if)2.5 E F0 +(statement is as follo)2.5 E(ws:)-.25 E F1(if)108 312.2 Q F2 -.2(ex)2.5 G(pr).2 +E F1(then)2.5 E F2 2.5(Xi)2.5 G(f-true X)169.46 312.2 Q F0([)2.5 E F1(else)A F2 +2.5(Yi)2.5 G(f-false Y)235.01 312.2 Q F0(])A .38(Its semantics are as follo)72 +330.2 R .38(ws: Ev)-.25 F(aluate)-.25 E F2 -.2(ex)2.88 G(pr).2 E F0 2.88(;i)C +2.88(fi)252.54 330.2 S 2.88(ti)261.53 330.2 S 2.879(sn)269.97 330.2 S .379 +(on-zero then do)281.739 330.2 R F2(if-true)2.879 E F0 2.879(,o)C .379 +(therwise do)383.515 330.2 R F2(if-false)2.879 E F0(.)A F2(X)5.379 E F0 .379 +(can be)2.879 F(an)72 342.2 Q 2.5(yc)-.15 G(haracter not occurring in)93.23 +342.2 Q F2(if-true)2.5 E F0(.)A F2(Y)5 E F0(can be an)2.5 E 2.5(yc)-.15 G +(haracter not occurring in)284.42 342.2 Q F2(if-false)2.5 E F0(.)A .289(Eithe \ +or both of the X or Y pairs may instead be balanced pairs of braces \({ and }\ +\) as in the)97 357.8 R F1(sh)2.79 E F0(com-)2.79 E 3.571(mand. In)72 369.8 R +1.071(either case, the)3.571 F F2(if-true)3.571 E F0 1.071 +(may contain balanced pairs of braces.)3.571 F 1.07 +(None of these delimiters will be)6.07 F(seen inside strings.)72 381.8 Q .463 +(All the usual relational operators my be used in conditional e)97 397.4 R .464 +(xpressions; ! \(logical ne)-.15 F -.05(ga)-.15 G .464(tion, not f).05 F(ac-) +-.1 E(torial\), &&, ||, ==, !=, >=, <=, <, >.)72 409.4 Q .582 +(String comparison is also supported using == and !=.)97 425 R .582 +(String comparisons may need to be parenthe-)5.582 F(sized to a)72 437 Q -.2 +(vo)-.2 G(id syntactic ambiguities.).2 E F1 2.5(17. Interface)72 461 R 1.84 +-.92(To [)2.5 H(gt]r).92 E(off)-.18 E F0 .295(The output of)97 476.6 R F1(pic) +2.795 E F0(is)2.795 E F1([gt]r)2.795 E(off)-.18 E F0(dra)2.795 E .295 +(wing commands.)-.15 F .295(The GNU)5.295 F F2(gpic)2.795 E F0 .295 +(\(1\) command w)B .295(arns that it relies on)-.1 F(dra)72 488.6 Q(wing e)-.15 +E(xtensions present in)-.15 E F2(gr)2.5 E(of)-.45 E(f)-.18 E F0 +(\(1\) that are not present in)A F2(tr)2.5 E(of)-.45 E(f)-.18 E F0(\(1\).)A F1 +2.5(17.1. 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468 84 DL 468 87.6 468 87.6 DL 468 +91.2 468 91.2 DL 468 94.8 468 94.8 DL 468 98.4 468 98.4 DL 468 102 468 102 DL +468 105.6 468 105.6 DL 468 109.2 468 109.2 DL 468 112.8 468 112.8 DL 468 116.4 +468 116.4 DL 468 120 468 120 DL 504 120 504 120 DL 507.6 120 507.6 120 DL 511.2 +120 511.2 120 DL 514.8 120 514.8 120 DL 518.4 120 518.4 120 DL 522 120 522 120 +DL 525.6 120 525.6 120 DL 529.2 120 529.2 120 DL 532.8 120 532.8 120 DL 536.4 +120 536.4 120 DL 540 120 540 120 DL 540 120 540 120 DL 540 116.4 540 116.4 DL +540 112.8 540 112.8 DL 540 109.2 540 109.2 DL 540 105.6 540 105.6 DL 540 102 +540 102 DL 540 98.4 540 98.4 DL 540 94.8 540 94.8 DL 540 91.2 540 91.2 DL 540 +87.6 540 87.6 DL 540 84 540 84 DL 540 84 540 84 DL 536.4 84 536.4 84 DL 532.8 +84 532.8 84 DL 529.2 84 529.2 84 DL 525.6 84 525.6 84 DL 522 84 522 84 DL 518.4 +84 518.4 84 DL 514.8 84 514.8 84 DL 511.2 84 511.2 84 DL 507.6 84 507.6 84 DL +504 84 504 84 DL 504 84 504 84 DL 504 87.6 504 87.6 DL 504 91.2 504 91.2 DL 504 +94.8 504 94.8 DL 504 98.4 504 98.4 DL 504 102 504 102 DL 504 105.6 504 105.6 DL +504 109.2 504 109.2 DL 504 112.8 504 112.8 DL 504 116.4 504 116.4 DL 504 120 +504 120 DL(arr)436.34 140.2 Q .2 -.1(ow u)-.18 H 2.5(pl).1 G(eft 2)481.06 140.2 +Q F0(Figure 20-1: Diagonal arro)136.26 161 Q(ws \(dotted box)-.25 E(es sho)-.15 +E 2.5(wt)-.25 G(he implied 0.5-inch grid\))339.75 161 Q(Here')97 188.6 Q 2.5 +(sa)-.55 G 2.5(ne)130.04 188.6 S +(xample concocted to demonstrate layout of a lar)141.83 188.6 Q +(ge, multiple-part pattern:)-.18 E EP +%%Page: 27 27 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-27-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Courier@0 SF(.PS)108 84 Q +(define filter {box ht 0.25 rad 0.125})108 96 Q(lineht = 0.25;)108 108 Q +(Top: [)108 120 Q(right;)132 132 Q(box "\\fBms\\fR" "sources";)132 144 Q(move;) +132 156 Q(box "\\fBHTML\\fR" "sources";)132 168 Q(move;)132 180 Q +(box "\\fBlinuxdoc-sgml\\fP" "sources" wid 1.5;)132 192 Q(move;)132 204 Q +(box "\\fBTexinfo\\fP" "sources";)132 216 Q(line down from 1st box .s lineht;) +132 240 Q(A: line down;)132 252 Q +(line down from 2nd box .s; filter "\\fBhtml2ms";)132 264 Q(B: line down;)132 +276 Q(line down from 3rd box .s; filter "\\fBformat\\fP";)132 288 Q +(C: line down;)132 300 Q +(line down from 4th box .s; filter "\\fBtexi2roff\\fP";)132 312 Q +(D: line down;)132 324 Q(])108 336 Q(move down 1 from last [] .s;)108 348 Q +(Anchor: box wid 1 ht 0.75 "\\fBms\\fR" "intermediate" "form";)108 360 Q +(arrow from Top.A.end to Anchor.nw;)108 372 Q +(arrow from Top.B.end to 1/3 of the way between Anchor.nw and Anchor.ne;)108 +384 Q(arrow from Top.C.end to 2/3 of the way between Anchor.nw and Anchor.ne;) +108 396 Q(arrow from Top.D.end to Anchor.ne)108 408 Q({)108 420 Q 6(#P)132 432 +S(ostScript column)150 432 Q(move to Anchor .sw;)132 444 Q +(line down left then down ->;)132 456 Q(filter "\\fBpic\\fP";)132 468 Q(arrow;) +132 480 Q(filter "\\fBeqn\\fP";)132 492 Q(arrow;)132 504 Q +(filter "\\fBtbl\\fP";)132 516 Q(arrow;)132 528 Q(filter "\\fBgroff\\fP";)132 +540 Q(arrow;)132 552 Q(box "PostScript";)132 564 Q 6(#H)132 588 S(TML column) +150 588 Q(move to Anchor .se;)132 600 Q(line down right then down ->;)132 612 Q +(A: filter dotted "\\fBpic2img\\fP";)132 624 Q(arrow;)132 636 Q +(B: filter dotted "\\fBeqn2html\\fP";)132 648 Q(arrow;)132 660 Q +(C: filter dotted "\\fBtbl2html\\fP";)132 672 Q(arrow;)132 684 Q +(filter "\\fBms2html\\fP";)132 696 Q(arrow;)132 708 Q(box "HTML";)132 720 Q EP +%%Page: 28 28 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-28-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Courier@0 SF 6(#N)132 96 S +(onexistence caption)150 96 Q +(box dashed wid 1 at B + \(2, 0\) "These tools" "don't yet exist";)132 108 Q +(line chop 0 chop 0.1 dashed from last box .nw to A.e ->;)132 120 Q +(line chop 0 chop 0.1 dashed from last box .w)132 132 Q(to B.e ->;)408 132 Q +(line chop 0 chop 0.1 dashed from last box .sw to C.e ->;)132 144 Q(})108 156 Q +(.PE)108 168 Q 126 228 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL .4 LW ST/F2 10 +/Times-Bold@0 SF(ms)92.89 206.2 Q F0(sources)84.005 218.2 Q 216 228 MT 0 -36 RL +-54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST F2(HTML)173.72 206.2 Q F0(sources)174.005 218.2 Q 360 +228 MT 0 -36 RL -108 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST F2(linuxdoc-sgml)275.995 206.2 Q F0 +(sources)291.005 218.2 Q 450 228 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST F2 -.92(Te) +407.195 206.2 S(xinf).92 E(o)-.25 E F0(sources)408.005 218.2 Q 99 264 99 228 DL +99 282 99 264 DL 189 246 189 228 DL 171 255 9 -180.0000 90.0000 DA 171 255 9 +-90.0000 180.0000 DA 207 255 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 DA 207 255 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA +162 255 162 255 DL 207 246 171 246 DL 216 255 216 255 DL 171 264 207 264 DL F2 +(html2ms)170.39 257.2 Q 189 282 189 264 DL 306 246 306 228 DL 288 255 9 +-180.0000 90.0000 DA 288 255 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 324 255 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 +DA 324 255 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 279 255 279 255 DL 324 246 288 246 DL 333 255 +333 255 DL 288 264 324 264 DL -.25(fo)291.41 257.2 S(rmat).25 E 306 282 306 264 +DL 423 246 423 228 DL 405 255 9 -180.0000 90.0000 DA 405 255 9 -90.0000 +180.0000 DA 441 255 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 DA 441 255 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 396 255 +396 255 DL 441 246 405 246 DL 450 255 450 255 DL 405 264 441 264 DL(texi2r) +404.765 257.2 Q(off)-.18 E 423 282 423 264 DL 297 408 MT 0 -54 RL -72 0 RL 0 54 +RL CL ST(ms)254.89 371.2 Q F0(intermediate)236.005 383.2 Q(form)251.28 395.2 Q +225 354 99 282 DL 225 354 MT -7.128 -2.016 RL 1.8 -3.096 RL CL BL 225 354 MT +-7.128 -2.016 RL 1.8 -3.096 RL CL ST 248.976 354 189 282 DL 248.976 354 MT +-5.976 -4.392 RL 2.736 -2.304 RL CL BL 248.976 354 MT -5.976 -4.392 RL 2.736 +-2.304 RL CL ST 273.024 354 306 282 DL 273.024 354 MT 1.368 -7.272 RL 3.24 +1.512 RL CL BL 273.024 354 MT 1.368 -7.272 RL 3.24 1.512 RL CL ST 297 354 423 +282 DL 297 354 MT 5.328 -5.112 RL 1.8 3.096 RL CL BL 297 354 MT 5.328 -5.112 RL +1.8 3.096 RL CL ST 189 426 225 408 DL 189 444 189 426 DL 189 444 MT -1.8 -7.2 +RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 189 444 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 171 453 9 -180.0000 +90.0000 DA 171 453 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 207 453 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 DA 207 453 +9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 162 453 162 453 DL 207 444 171 444 DL 216 453 216 453 DL +171 462 207 462 DL F2(pic)182.61 455.2 Q 189 480 189 462 DL 189 480 MT -1.8 +-7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 189 480 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 171 489 9 +-180.0000 90.0000 DA 171 489 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 207 489 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 +DA 207 489 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 162 489 162 489 DL 207 480 171 480 DL 216 489 +216 489 DL 171 498 207 498 DL(eqn)181.22 491.2 Q 189 516 189 498 DL 189 516 MT +-1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 189 516 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 171 525 9 +-180.0000 90.0000 DA 171 525 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 207 525 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 +DA 207 525 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 162 525 162 525 DL 207 516 171 516 DL 216 525 +216 525 DL 171 534 207 534 DL(tbl)183.165 527.2 Q 189 552 189 534 DL 189 552 MT +-1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 189 552 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 171 561 9 +-180.0000 90.0000 DA 171 561 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 207 561 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 +DA 207 561 9 90.0000 0.0000 DA 162 561 162 561 DL 207 552 171 552 DL 216 561 +216 561 DL 171 570 207 570 DL(gr)178.54 563.2 Q(off)-.18 E 189 588 189 570 DL +189 588 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 189 588 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST +216 624 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 36 RL CL ST F0(PostScript)168.44 608.2 Q 333 426 +297 408 DL 333 444 333 426 DL 333 444 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 333 444 MT +-1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 357.336 459.336 357.336 459.336 DL 359.28 456.456 +359.28 456.456 DL 360 453 360 453 DL(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 360 453 360 453 DL +359.28 449.544 359.28 449.544 DL 357.336 446.664 357.336 446.664 DL 354.384 +444.648 354.384 444.648 DL 350.928 444 350.928 444 DL 347.328 444 347.328 444 +DL 343.728 444 343.728 444 DL 340.128 444 340.128 444 DL 336.6 444 336.6 444 DL +333 444 333 444 DL 329.4 444 329.4 444 DL 325.872 444 325.872 444 DL 322.272 +444 322.272 444 DL 318.672 444 318.672 444 DL 315.072 444 315.072 444 DL +311.616 444.648 311.616 444.648 DL 308.664 446.664 308.664 446.664 DL 306.72 +449.544 306.72 449.544 DL 306 453 306 453 DL(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 306 453 306 453 +DL 306.72 456.456 306.72 456.456 DL 308.664 459.336 308.664 459.336 DL 311.616 +461.352 311.616 461.352 DL 315.072 462 315.072 462 DL 318.672 462 318.672 462 +DL 322.272 462 322.272 462 DL 325.872 462 325.872 462 DL 329.4 462 329.4 462 DL +333 462 333 462 DL 336.6 462 336.6 462 DL 340.128 462 340.128 462 DL 343.728 +462 343.728 462 DL 347.328 462 347.328 462 DL 350.928 462 350.928 462 DL +354.384 461.352 354.384 461.352 DL F2(pic2img)316.055 455.2 Q 333 480 333 462 +DL 333 480 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 333 480 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL +ST 357.336 495.336 357.336 495.336 DL 359.28 492.456 359.28 492.456 DL 360 489 +360 489 DL F0(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 360 489 360 489 DL 359.28 485.544 359.28 +485.544 DL 357.336 482.664 357.336 482.664 DL 354.384 480.648 354.384 480.648 +DL 350.928 480 350.928 480 DL 347.328 480 347.328 480 DL 343.728 480 343.728 +480 DL 340.128 480 340.128 480 DL 336.6 480 336.6 480 DL 333 480 333 480 DL +329.4 480 329.4 480 DL 325.872 480 325.872 480 DL 322.272 480 322.272 480 DL +318.672 480 318.672 480 DL 315.072 480 315.072 480 DL 311.616 480.648 311.616 +480.648 DL 308.664 482.664 308.664 482.664 DL 306.72 485.544 306.72 485.544 DL +306 489 306 489 DL(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 306 489 306 489 DL 306.72 492.456 306.72 +492.456 DL 308.664 495.336 308.664 495.336 DL 311.616 497.352 311.616 497.352 +DL 315.072 498 315.072 498 DL 318.672 498 318.672 498 DL 322.272 498 322.272 +498 DL 325.872 498 325.872 498 DL 329.4 498 329.4 498 DL 333 498 333 498 DL +336.6 498 336.6 498 DL 340.128 498 340.128 498 DL 343.728 498 343.728 498 DL +347.328 498 347.328 498 DL 350.928 498 350.928 498 DL 354.384 497.352 354.384 +497.352 DL F2(eqn2html)312.72 491.2 Q 333 516 333 498 DL 333 516 MT -1.8 -7.2 +RL 3.6 0 RL CL BL 333 516 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 357.336 531.336 +357.336 531.336 DL 359.28 528.456 359.28 528.456 DL 360 525 360 525 DL F0 +(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 360 525 360 525 DL 359.28 521.544 359.28 521.544 DL 357.336 +518.664 357.336 518.664 DL 354.384 516.648 354.384 516.648 DL 350.928 516 +350.928 516 DL 347.328 516 347.328 516 DL 343.728 516 343.728 516 DL 340.128 +516 340.128 516 DL 336.6 516 336.6 516 DL 333 516 333 516 DL 329.4 516 329.4 +516 DL 325.872 516 325.872 516 DL 322.272 516 322.272 516 DL 318.672 516 +318.672 516 DL 315.072 516 315.072 516 DL 311.616 516.648 311.616 516.648 DL +308.664 518.664 308.664 518.664 DL 306.72 521.544 306.72 521.544 DL 306 525 306 +525 DL(aNi'aNi')72 192 Q 306 525 306 525 DL 306.72 528.456 306.72 528.456 DL +308.664 531.336 308.664 531.336 DL 311.616 533.352 311.616 533.352 DL 315.072 +534 315.072 534 DL 318.672 534 318.672 534 DL 322.272 534 322.272 534 DL +325.872 534 325.872 534 DL 329.4 534 329.4 534 DL 333 534 333 534 DL 336.6 534 +336.6 534 DL 340.128 534 340.128 534 DL 343.728 534 343.728 534 DL 347.328 534 +347.328 534 DL 350.928 534 350.928 534 DL 354.384 533.352 354.384 533.352 DL F2 +(tbl2html)314.665 527.2 Q 333 552 333 534 DL 333 552 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL +CL BL 333 552 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 315 561 9 -180.0000 90.0000 DA 315 +561 9 -90.0000 180.0000 DA 351 561 9 -0.0000 -90.0000 DA 351 561 9 90.0000 +0.0000 DA 306 561 306 561 DL 351 552 315 552 DL 360 561 360 561 DL 315 570 351 +570 DL(ms2html)314.39 563.2 Q 333 588 333 570 DL 333 588 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 +RL CL BL 333 588 MT -1.8 -7.2 RL 3.6 0 RL CL ST 360 624 MT 0 -36 RL -54 0 RL 0 +36 RL CL ST F0(HTML)318.835 608.2 Q 444.6 507 441 507 DL 452.232 507 448.632 +507 DL 459.792 507 456.192 507 DL 467.424 507 463.824 507 DL 474.984 507 +471.384 507 DL 482.616 507 479.016 507 DL 490.176 507 486.576 507 DL 497.808 +507 494.208 507 DL 505.368 507 501.768 507 DL 513 507 509.4 507 DL 513 503.4 +513 507 DL 513 496.92 513 500.52 DL 513 490.44 513 494.04 DL 513 483.96 513 +487.56 DL 513 477.48 513 481.08 DL 513 471 513 474.6 DL 509.4 471 513 471 DL +501.768 471 505.368 471 DL 494.208 471 497.808 471 DL 486.576 471 490.176 471 +DL 479.016 471 482.616 471 DL 471.384 471 474.984 471 DL 463.824 471 467.424 +471 DL 456.192 471 459.792 471 DL 448.632 471 452.232 471 DL 441 471 444.6 471 +DL 441 474.6 441 471 DL 441 481.08 441 477.48 DL 441 487.56 441 483.96 DL 441 +494.04 441 490.44 DL 441 500.52 441 496.92 DL 441 507 441 503.4 DL(These tools) +454.085 485.2 Q(don')448.555 497.2 Q 2.5(ty)-.18 G(et e)476.985 497.2 Q(xist) +-.15 E 437.472 470.208 441 471 DL 430.416 468.624 433.944 469.416 DL 423.36 +467.112 426.888 467.904 DL 416.304 465.528 419.832 466.32 DL 409.32 463.944 +412.848 464.736 DL 402.264 462.36 405.792 463.152 DL 395.208 460.848 398.736 +461.64 DL 388.152 459.264 391.68 460.056 DL 381.096 457.68 384.624 458.472 DL +374.04 456.096 377.568 456.888 DL 366.984 454.584 370.512 455.376 DL 367.056 +454.584 MT 7.416 -.216 RL -.792 3.528 RL CL BL 367.056 454.584 MT 7.416 -.216 +RL -.792 3.528 RL CL ST 437.4 489 441 489 DL 430.344 489 433.944 489 DL 423.36 +489 426.96 489 DL 416.304 489 419.904 489 DL 409.32 489 412.92 489 DL 402.336 +489 405.936 489 DL 395.28 489 398.88 489 DL 388.224 489 391.824 489 DL 381.24 +489 384.84 489 DL 374.184 489 377.784 489 DL 367.2 489 370.8 489 DL 367.2 489 +MT 7.2 -1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL BL 367.2 489 MT 7.2 -1.8 RL 0 3.6 RL CL ST 437.472 +507.792 441 507 DL 430.416 509.376 433.944 508.584 DL 423.36 510.888 426.888 +510.096 DL 416.304 512.472 419.832 511.68 DL 409.32 514.056 412.848 513.264 DL +402.264 515.64 405.792 514.848 DL 395.208 517.152 398.736 516.36 DL 388.152 +518.736 391.68 517.944 DL 381.096 520.32 384.624 519.528 DL 374.04 521.904 +377.568 521.112 DL 366.984 523.416 370.512 522.624 DL 367.056 523.416 MT 6.624 +-3.312 RL .792 3.528 RL CL BL 367.056 523.416 MT 6.624 -3.312 RL .792 3.528 RL +CL ST(Figure 20-2: Hypothetical production \215o)151.05 647 Q 2.5(wf)-.25 G +(or dual-mode publishing)326.62 647 Q F2 2.5(21. PIC)72 686.6 R(Refer)2.5 E +(ence)-.18 E F0(This is an annotated grammar of PIC.)97 702.2 Q EP +%%Page: 29 29 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-29-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Times-Bold@0 SF 2.5 +(21.1. Lexical)72 84 R(Items)2.5 E F0 .317(In general,)97 99.6 R F1(pic)2.817 E +F0 .317(is a free-format, tok)2.817 F .317 +(en-oriented language that ignores whitespace outside strings.)-.1 F(But)5.316 +E(certain lines and contructs are specially interpreted at the le)72 111.6 Q +(xical le)-.15 E -.15(ve)-.25 G(l:).15 E 3.846(Ac)97 127.2 S 1.346(omment be) +112.506 127.2 R 1.347 +(gins with # and continues to \\n \(comments may also follo)-.15 F 3.847(wt) +-.25 G -.15(ex)414.925 127.2 S 3.847(ti).15 G 3.847(nal)433.622 127.2 S 3.847 +(ine\). A)453.536 127.2 R(line)3.847 E(be)72 139.2 Q .359 +(ginning with a period or backslash may be interpreted as te)-.15 F .359 +(xt to be passed through to the post-processor)-.15 F(,)-.4 E .822 +(depending on command-line options.)72 151.2 R .822 +(An end-of-line backslash is interpreted as a request to continue the)5.822 F +(line; the backslash and follo)72 163.2 Q(wing ne)-.25 E(wline are ignored.) +-.25 E(Here are the grammar terminals:)72 178.8 Q(<number>)72 194.4 Q 3.406(Ad) +97 206.4 S .906(ecimal numeric constant.)112.626 206.4 R .906 +(May contain a decimal point or be e)5.906 F .906 +(xpressed in scienti\214c notation in)-.15 F(the style of)97 218.4 Q/F2 10 +/Times-Italic@0 SF(printf)2.5 E F0(\(3\)')A 2.5(s%)-.55 G 2.5(ee)195.33 218.4 S +(scape. \(All v)206.71 218.4 Q +(ariables are represented internally in \215oating-point.\))-.25 E(<string>)72 +234 Q(An)97 246 Q 3.611(yA)-.15 G 1.112 +(SCII characters surrounded by a pair of double quotes.)124.901 246 R 1.112 +(May contain a double quote if pre-)6.112 F(ceded by a backslash.)97 258 Q(<v) +72 273.6 Q(ariable>)-.25 E 3.427(Al)97 285.6 S -.25(ow)110.427 285.6 S(er).25 E +.927(-case alphabetic character)-.2 F 3.427(,f)-.4 G(ollo)243.958 285.6 Q .927 +(wed by an)-.25 F 3.427(yn)-.15 G .927(umber of alphanumerics.)315.499 285.6 R +(\(V)5.926 E .926(alues of v)-1.11 F(ariables)-.25 E(are preserv)97 297.6 Q +(ed across pictures.\))-.15 E(<label>)72 313.2 Q(An upper)97 325.2 Q +(-case alphabetic character)-.2 E 2.5(,f)-.4 G(ollo)245.5 325.2 Q(wed by an) +-.25 E 2.5(yn)-.15 G(umber of alphanumerics.)314.26 325.2 Q F1 2.5 +(21.2. Semi-F)72 349.2 R(ormal Grammar)-.25 E F0 -.8(To)97 364.8 S -.1(ke).8 G +(ns not enclosed in <> are literals, e).1 E(xcept:)-.15 E 15(1. \\n)72 380.4 R +(is a ne)2.5 E(wline)-.25 E 15(2. three)72 396 R(dots is a suf)2.5 E +(\214x meaning `replace with 0 or more repetitions of the preceding element.) +-.25 E 15(3. enclosure)72 411.6 R(in square brack)2.5 E +(ets has its usual meaning of `this clause is optional'.)-.1 E 15 +(4. Square-brack)72 427.2 R .588(et-enclosed portions within tok)-.1 F .588 +(ens are optional.)-.1 F(Thus,)5.588 E F1(h[eigh]t)3.088 E F0 .588 +(matches either `height')3.088 F(or `ht'.)97 439.2 Q +(If one of these special tok)72 454.8 Q(ens has to be referred to literally)-.1 +E 2.5(,i)-.65 G 2.5(ti)311.47 454.8 S 2.5(ss)319.53 454.8 S +(urrounded with single quotes.)329.81 454.8 Q(The top-le)97 470.4 Q -.15(ve) +-.25 G(l).15 E F1(pic)2.5 E F0(object is a picture.)2.5 E/F3 10/Courier@0 SF 18 +(<picture> ::=)108 488.4 R(.PS [width [height]]\\n)6 E(<statement> ...)210 +500.4 Q(.PE \\n)210 512.4 Q F0(The)72 534 Q F2(width)2.523 E F0(and)2.523 E F2 +(height)2.523 E F0(ar)2.523 E .022(guments, if present, cause)-.18 F F1(pic) +2.522 E F0 .022(to attempt to scale the picture to the gi)2.522 F -.15(ve)-.25 +G 2.522(nd).15 G(imensions)463.44 534 Q .732(in inches.)72 546 R .732 +(In no case, ho)5.732 F(we)-.25 E -.15(ve)-.25 G 1.532 -.4(r, w).15 H .732 +(ill the X and Y dimensions of the picture e).4 F .732(xceed the v)-.15 F .732 +(alues of the style)-.25 F -.25(va)72 558 S(riables).25 E F1(maxpswid)2.5 E F0 +(,)A F1(maxpsheight)2.5 E F0(\(which def)2.5 E +(ault to the normal 8.5 by 11 page size\))-.1 E F1(.)A F0 .807 +(If the ending .PS is replaced by .PF)72 573.6 R 3.307(,t)-.8 G .807(he page v) +226.816 573.6 R .807(ertical position is restored to its v)-.15 F .806 +(alue at the time .PS w)-.25 F(as)-.1 E 3.382(encountered. Another)72 585.6 R +.882(alternate form of in)3.382 F -.2(vo)-.4 G .882(cation is).2 F F3 .882 +(.PS <)3.382 F F2(\214lename)A F0 3.382(,w)C .882 +(hich replaces the .PS line with a)370.668 585.6 R(\214le to be interpreted by) +72 597.6 Q F1(pic)2.5 E F0(\(b)2.5 E(ut this feature is deprecated\).)-.2 E +.128(The .PS, .PE, and .PF macros to perform centering and scaling are normall\ +y supplied by the post-processor)72 613.2 R(.)-.55 E EP +%%Page: 30 30 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-30-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Courier@0 SF 6(<statement> ::=) +108 84 R(<command> ;)6 E(<command> \\n)210 96 Q 18(<command> ::=)108 120 R +(<primitive> <modifier>...)6 E(<label> : <command>)210 132 Q +(<label> : <position>)210 144 Q(<variable> = <expr>)210 156 Q(<direction>)210 +168 Q 6({<)210 180 S(command> ... })228 180 Q('[' <command> ... ']')210 192 Q +(for <var> = <expr> to <expr> [by <expr>] do { <command> ... })210 204 Q +(if <expr> then { <command> ... } [else { <command> ... }])210 216 Q +(copy <filename> [until <word>])210 228 Q +(copy <filename> thru <macroname> [until <word>])210 240 Q(sh <balanced-text>) +210 252 Q(print <print-item>)210 264 Q(reset [ <variable> ... ])210 276 Q F0 +(The current position and direction are sa)72 297.6 Q -.15(ve)-.2 G 2.5(do).15 +G 2.5(ne)255.22 297.6 S(ntry to a { } and restored on e)267.16 297.6 Q +(xit from it.)-.15 E(Dra)72 313.2 Q 1.606(wn objects within [ ] are treated as\ + a single composite object with a rectangular shape \(that of the)-.15 F 1.036 +(bounding box of all the elements\).)72 325.2 R -1.11(Va)6.036 G 1.036 +(riable and label assignments within a block are local to the block.)1.11 F +1.369(Current direction of motion is restored to the v)72 337.2 R 1.37 +(alue at start of block upon e)-.25 F 3.87(xit. Position)-.15 F(is)3.87 E/F2 10 +/Times-Italic@0 SF(not)3.87 E F0(restored)3.87 E(\(unlik)72 349.2 Q 3.182(e{}) +-.1 G 3.182(\)i)116.194 349.2 S .682 +(nstead, the current position becomes the e)125.486 349.2 R .682 +(xit position for the current direction on the block')-.15 F(s)-.55 E +(bounding box.)72 361.2 Q EP +%%Page: 31 31 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-31-)279.67 48 Q/F1 10/Courier@0 SF 6(<primitive> ::=) +108 84 R(box)6 E F0 2.5(#C)342 84 S(losed object -- rectangle)356.17 84 Q F1 +(circle)210 96 Q F0 2.5(#C)342 96 S(losed object -- circle)356.17 96 Q F1 +(ellipse)210 108 Q F0 2.5(#C)342 108 S(losed object -- ellipse)356.17 108 Q F1 +(arc)210 120 Q F0 2.5(#O)342 120 S(pen object -- quarter)356.72 120 Q(-circle) +-.2 E F1(line)210 132 Q F0 2.5(#O)342 132 S(pen object -- line)356.72 132 Q F1 +(arrow)210 144 Q F0 2.5(#O)342 144 S(pen object -- line with arro)356.72 144 Q +(whead)-.25 E F1(spline)210 156 Q F0 2.5(#O)342 156 S +(pen object -- spline curv)356.72 156 Q(e)-.15 E F1(move)210 168 Q +(<text> <text> ...)210 180 Q F0 2.5(#T)342 180 S -.15(ex)354.91 180 S 2.5(tw) +.15 G(ithin in)376.7 180 Q(visible box)-.4 E F1 6(<attribute> ::=)108 204 R +(h[eigh]t <expr>)6 E F0 2.5(#S)342 204 S(et height of closed \214gure)355.06 +204 Q F1(wid[th] <expr>)210 216 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 216 S +(et width of closed \214gure)355.06 216 Q F1(rad[ius] <expr>)210 228 Q F0 2.5 +(#S)342 228 S(et radius of circle/arc)355.06 228 Q F1(diam[eter] <expr>)210 240 +Q F0 2.5(#S)342 240 S(et diameter of circle/arc)355.06 240 Q F1(up [ <expr> ]) +210 252 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 252 S .3 -.15(ove u)358.39 252 T(p).15 E F1 +(down [ <expr> ])210 264 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 264 S .3 -.15(ove d)358.39 264 T -.25 +(ow).15 G(n).25 E F1(left [ <expr> ])210 276 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 276 S .3 -.15 +(ove l)358.39 276 T(eft).15 E F1(right [ <expr> ])210 288 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 288 S +.3 -.15(ove r)358.39 288 T(ight).15 E F1(from <position>)210 300 Q F0 2.5(#S) +342 300 S(et from position of open \214gure)355.06 300 Q F1(to <position>)210 +312 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 312 S(et to position of open \214gure)355.06 312 Q F1 +(at <position>)210 324 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 324 S(et center of open \214gure)355.06 +324 Q F1(with <corner>)210 336 Q F0 2.5(#F)342 336 S +(ix corner at speci\214ed location)355.06 336 Q F1(by <expr> <expr>)210 348 Q +F0 2.5(#S)342 348 S(et object')355.06 348 Q 2.5(sa)-.55 G(ttachment point) +402.83 348 Q F1(then)210 360 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 360 S(equential se)355.06 360 Q +(gment composition)-.15 E F1(dotted [ <expr> ])210 372 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 372 S +(et dotted line style)355.06 372 Q F1(dashed [ <expr> ])210 384 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 +384 S(et dashed line style)355.06 384 Q F1(chop [ <expr> ])210 396 Q F0 2.5(#C) +342 396 S(hop end\(s\) of se)356.17 396 Q(gment)-.15 E F1(->)210 408 Q F0 2.5 +(#D)342 408 S(ecorate with "to" arro)356.72 408 Q(w)-.25 E F1(<-)210 420 Q F0 +2.5(#D)342 420 S(ecorate with "from" arro)356.72 420 Q(w)-.25 E F1(<->)210 432 +Q F0 2.5(#D)342 432 S(ecorate with both arro)356.72 432 Q(ws)-.25 E F1(invis) +210 444 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 444 S(ak)358.39 444 Q 2.5(ep)-.1 G(rimiti)379.67 444 Q +.3 -.15(ve i)-.25 H -.4(nv).15 G(isible).4 E F1(solid)210 456 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 +456 S(ak)358.39 456 Q 2.5(ec)-.1 G(losed \214gure solid)379.11 456 Q F1 +(fill <expr>)210 468 Q F0 2.5(#S)342 468 S(et \214ll density for \214gure) +355.06 468 Q F1(same)210 480 Q F0 2.5(#C)342 480 S(op)356.17 480 Q 2.5(ys)-.1 G +(ize of pre)377.46 480 Q(vious object)-.25 E F1(<text> <text> ...)210 492 Q F0 +2.5(#T)342 492 S -.15(ex)354.91 492 S 2.5(tw).15 G(ithin object)376.7 492 Q F1 +(<expr>)210 504 Q F0 2.5(#M)342 504 S(otion in the current direction)358.39 504 +Q 1.238(Missing attrib)72 525.6 R 1.238(utes are supplied from def)-.2 F 1.239 +(aults; inappropriate ones are silently ignored.)-.1 F -.15(Fo)6.239 G 3.739 +(rl).15 G 1.239(ines, splines,)451.371 525.6 R +(and arcs, height and width refer to arro)72 537.6 Q(whead size.)-.25 E(The)97 +553.2 Q F1(at)2.892 E F0(primiti)2.892 E .692 -.15(ve s)-.25 H .392 +(ets the center of the current object.).15 F(The)5.392 E F1(with)2.892 E F0 +(attrib)2.892 E .392(ute \214x)-.2 F .391(es the speci\214ed feature)-.15 F +(of the gi)72 565.2 Q -.15(ve)-.25 G 2.5(no).15 G +(bject to a speci\214ed location.)126.87 565.2 Q(The)97 580.8 Q F1(solid)2.5 E +F0(primiti)2.5 E .3 -.15(ve i)-.25 H 2.5(sn).15 G(ot yet supported in GNU) +200.49 580.8 Q/F2 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(gpic)2.5 E F0(.)A(The)97 596.4 Q F1(by) +2.69 E F0(primiti)2.69 E .49 -.15(ve i)-.25 H 2.69(sn).15 G .19 +(ot documented in the tutorial portion of the K)183.25 596.4 R .19 +(ernighan paper)-.25 F 2.69(,a)-.4 G .19(nd should proba-)435.85 596.4 R +(bly be considered unreliable.)72 608.4 Q(The primiti)97 624 Q -.15(ve)-.25 G +F2(arr)2.65 E -.1(ow)-.18 G F0(is a synon)2.6 E(ym for)-.15 E F2(line ->)2.5 E +F0(.)A F1 6(<text> ::=)108 642 R(<string> [ <placement> ... ])210 642 Q +(sprintf\("format", <expr> ...\) [ <placement> ... ])210 654 Q(<placement> ::=) +108 678 Q(center | ljust | rjust | above | below)210 678 Q F0 -1.25 -.7(Te x)72 +699.6 T 2.56(ti).7 G 2.56(sn)94.82 699.6 S .06(ormally an attrib)106.27 699.6 R +.059(ute of some object, in which case successi)-.2 F .359 -.15(ve s)-.25 H +.059(trings are v).15 F .059(ertically stack)-.15 F .059(ed and cen-)-.1 F +(tered on the object')72 711.6 Q 2.5(sc)-.55 G(enter by def)159.76 711.6 Q 2.5 +(ault. Standalone)-.1 F(te)2.5 E(xt is treated as though placed in an in)-.15 E +(visible box.)-.4 E EP +%%Page: 32 32 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-32-)279.67 48 Q 2.803(At)97 84 S -.15(ex)109.803 84 S +2.803(ti).15 G .304(tem consists of a string or sprintf-e)127.456 84 R .304 +(xpression, optionally follo)-.15 F .304(wed by positioning information.)-.25 F +-1.25 -.7(Te x)72 96 T 2.859(to).7 G 2.859(rf)97.339 96 S .359 +(ormat strings may contain {gtn}rof)106.858 96 R 2.859(ff)-.25 G .358 +(ont changes, size changes, and local motions, pro)258.263 96 R .358 +(vided those)-.15 F(changes are undone before the end of the current item.)72 +108 Q 2.5(Ap)97 123.6 S(osition is an \(x, y\) coordinate pair)111.72 123.6 Q 5 +(.T)-.55 G(here are lots of dif)260.04 123.6 Q(ferent w)-.25 E +(ays to specify positions:)-.1 E/F1 10/Courier@0 SF 6(<position> ::= <expr>)108 +141.6 R 6(,<)6 G(expr>)270 141.6 Q(<place> {+-} <expr> , <expr>)210 153.6 Q +(<place> {+-} \( <expr> , <expr> \))210 165.6 Q 6(\(<)210 177.6 S +(position> , <position> \))228 177.6 Q +(<expr> [of the way] between <position> and <position>)210 189.6 Q +(<expr> '<' <position> , <position> '>')210 201.6 Q 6(\(<)210 213.6 S +(position> \))228 213.6 Q 6(<place> ::=)108 237.6 R(<label> [ <dot-corner> ]) +210 237.6 Q(<corner> of <label>)210 249.6 Q +([0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9]th [last] <primitive> <dot-corner>)210 261.6 Q +(<expr>'th [last]<primitive> <dot-corner>)210 273.6 Q +(<corner> of [0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9]th [last] <primitive>)210 285.6 Q +(<corner> of <expr>'th [last] <primitive>)210 297.6 Q(Here)210 309.6 Q(<dot-co\ +rner> ::= .n | .e | .w | .s | .ne | .nw | .se | .sw | .c | .start | .end)108 +333.6 Q(<corner> ::=)108 357.6 Q(top | bot | left | right | start | end)210 +357.6 Q F0 2.065(As K)72 379.2 R 2.065(ernighan notes, "since barbarisms lik) +-.25 F(e)-.1 E/F2 10/Times-Bold@0 SF(1th)4.565 E F0(and)4.565 E F2(3th)4.565 E +F0 2.065(are barbaric, synon)4.565 F 2.065(yms lik)-.15 F(e)-.1 E F2(1st)4.565 +E F0(and)4.565 E F2(3rd)4.565 E F0(are)4.565 E .721(accepted as well".)72 391.2 +R .721(Objects of a gi)5.721 F -.15(ve)-.25 G 3.221(nt).15 G .721 +(ype are numbered from 1 upw)232.077 391.2 R .72 +(ards in order of declaration; the)-.1 F F2(last)3.22 E F0 +(modi\214er counts backw)72 403.2 Q(ards.)-.1 E 1.291(The "')97 418.8 R 1.291 +(th" form \(which allo)-.18 F 1.291(ws you to select a pre)-.25 F 1.291 +(vious object with an e)-.25 F 1.292(xpression, as opposed to a)-.15 F +(numeric literal\) is bnot documented in D)72 430.8 Q(WB)-.3 E F2(pic)2.5 E F0 +(\(1\).)A(The follo)97 446.4 Q(wing style v)-.25 E(ariables control output:) +-.25 E F2(Style V)72 466.4 Q 12.5(ariable Default What)-.92 F(It Does)2.5 E .08 +LW 371.35 472.9 72 472.9 DL 186.07 454.9 186.07 474.9 DL 139.41 454.9 139.41 +474.9 DL F0 59.21(boxht 0.5)72 484.4 R(Def)193.57 484.4 Q(ault height of a box) +-.1 E 51.99(boxwid 0.75)72 496.4 R(Def)193.57 496.4 Q(ault height of a box)-.1 +E 59.21(lineht 0.5)72 508.4 R(Def)193.57 508.4 Q(ault length of v)-.1 E +(ertical line)-.15 E(line)72 520.4 Q 52.24(wid 0.75)-.25 F(Def)193.57 520.4 Q +(ault length of horizontal line)-.1 E 57.01(arcrad 0.25)72 532.4 R(Def)193.57 +532.4 Q(ault radius of an arc)-.1 E 47.01(circlerad 0.25)72 544.4 R(Def)193.57 +544.4 Q(ault radius of a circle)-.1 E 48.1(ellipseht 0.5)72 556.4 R(Def)193.57 +556.4 Q(ault height of an ellipse)-.1 E(ellipse)72 568.4 Q 41.13(wid 0.75)-.25 +F(Def)193.57 568.4 Q(ault width of an ellipse)-.1 E(mo)72 580.4 Q -.15(ve)-.15 +G 52.29(ht 0.5).15 F(Def)193.57 580.4 Q(ault length of v)-.1 E(ertical mo)-.15 +E -.15(ve)-.15 G(mo)72 592.4 Q -.15(ve)-.15 G 45.32(wid 0.75)-.1 F(Def)193.57 +592.4 Q(ault length of horizontal mo)-.1 E -.15(ve)-.15 G(te)72 604.4 Q 59.36 +(xtht 0)-.15 F(Def)193.57 604.4 Q(ault height of box enclosing a te)-.1 E +(xt object)-.15 E(te)72 616.4 Q 52.14(xtwid 0)-.15 F(Def)193.57 616.4 Q +(ault width of box enclosing a te)-.1 E(xt object)-.15 E(arro)72 628.4 Q 51.14 +(wht 0.1)-.25 F(Length of arro)193.57 628.4 Q(whead along shaft)-.25 E(arro)72 +640.4 Q 43.92(wwid 0.05)-.25 F -.4(Wi)193.57 640.4 S(dth of rear of arro).4 E +(whead)-.25 E(arro)72 652.4 Q 40.04(whead 1)-.25 F(Enable/disable arro)193.57 +652.4 Q(whead \214lling)-.25 E 48.66(dashwid 0.05)72 664.4 R(Interv)193.57 +664.4 Q(al for dashed lines)-.25 E 35.88(maxpswid 11)72 676.4 R +(Maximum width of picture)193.57 676.4 Q 48.1(maxpsht 8.5)72 688.4 R +(Maximum height of picture)193.57 688.4 Q 62(scale 1)72 700.4 R(Unit scale f) +193.57 700.4 Q(actor)-.1 E(\214llv)72 712.4 Q 58.9(al 0.5)-.25 F(Def)193.57 +712.4 Q(ault \214ll v)-.1 E(alue)-.25 E 371.35 721.9 72 721.9 DL 186.07 474.9 +186.07 721.9 DL 139.41 474.9 139.41 721.9 DL EP +%%Page: 33 33 +%%BeginPageSetup +BP +%%EndPageSetup +/F0 10/Times-Roman@0 SF(-33-)279.67 48 Q(An)72 84 Q 2.57(yo)-.15 G 2.57(ft) +96.64 84 S .07(hese can be set by assignment, or reset using the)105.32 84 R/F1 +10/Times-Bold@0 SF -.18(re)2.57 G(set).18 E F0 2.57(statement. 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